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The Science and Technology
of Traditional and Modern
Roofing Systems

by: Dr. H. Laaly

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Volume One | Volume Two | Top

Volume One
Chapters 1 to 40 - 1,552 Pages
Chapter NamePgs
1Introduction to Roofingp. 6
2Roofing Historyp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Roofing Technology - A Selected Chronologyp. 13
Concluding Remarksp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
3Roofing Material Properties and Productionp. 41
Introductionp. 1
Woodp. 3
Wood Preservativesp. 1
Wood Propertiesp. 1
Wood Manufacturingp. 1
Metalp. 7
Cement And Concretep. 11
Plasticsp. 8
References And Further Readingp. 6
4Roofing Structure, Design and Detailsp. 71
Introductionp. 2
The Ultimate Rule in Roof Designp. 2
Informative Designingp. 1
Life-Cycle Costingp. 1
Structural Load Designp. 1
Elastic Deformationp. 2
Wooden Roof Structurep. 1
Structural Steel Designp. 2
Roof Drainage Design Calculationsp. 3
Roof Drainage Designsp. 3
An Alternative School Of Thoughtp. 2
Parapet Wall Structural Design Using Portland Cement Plasterp. 2
Causes Of Roofing Failuresp. 1
Communicating Roofing Designp. 1
Structural Considerations And Roof Decksp. 1
Insulationp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Fire And Wind Considerationsp. 1
Earthquake-Resistant Roof Designp. 1
Pest Infestation And Roof Designp. 1
Residential Ceiling And Roof Framingp. 1
Flat Roofsp. 1
Pitched Roofsp. 1
Framing the Roofp. 6
Residential Flat Roof To Steep Roof Conversionp. 3
Roof Construction Detailsp. 4
Generic Details For Modified Bitumenp. 1
Basic Flashing History and Guidelinesp. 1
Penetration Flashingsp. 1
Little Holesp. 2
Collar Penetration Flashingp. 3
Smaller Holes, Tougher Holesp. 3
Where Penetration is Avoidedp. 1
Overflow Scupper Penetrationsp. 1
The Unflashable Penetrationp. 2
Late Damagep. 1
Expansion Joint Guidelinesp. 1
The Overriding Flashing Considerationsp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 15
5Roof Decksp. 30
Introductionp. 2
Roof Slopep. 2
Deflectionp. 1
Recommendations for avoidance of defectsp. 1
Dimensional stabilityp. 1
Moisture Absorptionp. 1
Moisture Proofingp. 1
Fireproofingp. 1
Anchorage and Attachmentp. 1
Deck Surfacep. 1
Adjoining Walls and Penetrationsp. 1
Deck Types And Materialsp. 1
Wood Decksp. 2
Wood Deck Cautionsp. 1
Installing Plywood Sheathingp. 1
Installing Tongue-and-Groove Board Sheathingp. 1
Gypsum Board Decksp. 1
Poured Or Sprayed Gypsum Concretep. 1
Concrete Decksp. 1
Lightweight Concretep. 3
Structural Concretep. 3
Metal Roof Decksp. 4
Roof Deck Usep. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
6Barriers for Roofing Systemsp. 43
Introductionp. 2
Vapor-Retarding Barriersp. 1
When to Use a Vapor Retarderp. 2
How to Use Vapor Retardersp. 1
High-Tech Vapor Barriers: Hygro Diode Membranesp. 2
Computer Analysis & Vapor Barrier Use Parametersp. 2
Understanding Air Barriersp. 1
Using Air Barriers to Resist Roof Blow-Offs & Ballooningp. 1
Ballooning and Delaminationp. 1
Air/Vapor Barrier "Systems" -- Controlling Condensationp. 2
Technics Air And Vapor Barriersp. 17
Vapor Retarders and The Trouble with Ventsp. 1
When Venting Worksp. 1
Using Vapor Barriers in Cold Storage Structuresp. 1
Ultraviolet Radiation Barriersp. 1
UV Radiation, Oxygen, and Temperaturep. 1
Noise Barriersp. 2
Walkways And Decking As Wear Barriers And Protecting Layersp. 2
Barrier Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
7Thermal Insulationp. 100
Introductionp. 1
Roof-to-wall ratiosp. 1
Potential Problems With Insulation?p. 1
Definitions And Theory Of Thermal Inertiap. 4
Physical And Chemical Properties Of Thermal Insulationp. 1
Thermal Insulation Materialsp. 1
Physical Structure And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Environment And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Moisture And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Chemistry Of Polyurethans And Isocyanatesp. 1
Historyp. 2
Composition Of Polyurethanep. 1
Testing And Evaluation Studies Of Thermal Insulationp. 9
Recent Studies On Thermal Insulation - An Overviewp. 10
Thermal Driftp. 1
Too Much Insulation?p. 1
Rigid Insulation Boardsp. 1
Cellular Glass Insulationp. 1
Fiberglass Roof Insulationp. 1
Perlite/Vermiculite Boardp. 1
Phenolic Foam - phenol-formaldehyde (pf) resinp. 1
Polystyrene Bead Board, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)p. 1
Polystyrene Extruded Foam Boardp. 1
Urethane/Isocyanurate Foamsp. 1
Wood Fiberboardp. 3
Composite Thermal Insulationp. 2
Facingsp. 2
Composite Roofing Systemsp. 1
Thermal Insulation In Home Constructionp. 1
Loose Insulationp. 1
Cellulosic Fiberp. 1
Glass Fiberp. 2
Mineral Fiberp. 1
Coveragep. 1
Thermal Characteristicsp. 1
Moisture Absorptionp. 1
Applicationp. 2
Unfloored atticsp. 1
Floored atticsp. 1
Attic walls and slopesp. 1
Spray-On Insulationp. 1
Cellulosic Sprayp. 1
Mineral Wool Sprayp. 1
Cementitious Sprayp. 1
Application of Spray-On Insulationp. 2
Spray-On Insulation Adhesivesp. 1
Batt And Blanket Insulationp. 2
Thermal Insulation by Designp. 1
Urea-Formaldehyde Insulationp. 1
Epoxy Foamsp. 1
Tapered Insulationsp. 6
Rooftop Pipes Require Insulation Toop. 5
References And Further Readingp. 1
Calculating Insulation Valuesp. 6
Polyurethane Publicationsp. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Uffip. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Phenolic, Cellularp. 1
Insulation; Glass Fiberp. 1
Insulation; Rigid Boardp. 6
Insulation; Rigid; Expanded Polystyrenep. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Extruded Polystyrenep. 1
Insulation; Loose Or Sprayedp. 3
Insulation Testing And Standardsp. 2
Moisture & Insulationp. 2
Insulation; General Papers Onp. 3
8Thatched Roofingp. 28
Introductionp. 1
Brief History Of Thatchingp. 1
Materialsp. 1
Characteristics Of Thatchp. 2
Applicationp. 1
Thatching Toolsp. 1
Fixing Hardwarep. 1
General Specificationsp. 2
Design Considerationsp. 1
Specificationsp. 1
Details at Eavesp. 1
Gabled Endsp. 1
Ridgesp. 1
Ridge Capp. 1
Integral Roof Surface Decorationp. 1
Hipsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Flashingp. 1
Sedge Apronsp. 1
Vent Stacksp. 1
Attic Ventingp. 1
Chimneysp. 1
Architectural Detailsp. 1
Deck Construction And Underlayment Detailsp. 1
Thatch Treated Class-C Roofing Systemp. 1
Sheathingp. 1
Underlaymentp. 1
Sub-battensp. 1
Horizontal Battensp. 1
Arris Boardp. 1
Thatch Treated Class-A Roofing Systemp. 1
Supply And Installation Responsibilitiesp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Thatchingp. 1
Chimney Stacksp. 1
Hipsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Vergesp. 1
Ridgesp. 1
Fire Hazardp. 1
Preventive Measuresp. 1
Reduction of Combustibilityp. 1
Fire Fighting Facilitiesp. 1
Generallyp. 1
Rainwater Disposalp. 1
Durabilityp. 1
Maintenancep. 1
Compliancep. 1
Fire Testp. 1
Wind Testp. 1
Thermal Insulation Testp. 1
Pricing Guidelinesp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
9Slate Roofingp. 15
Introductionp. 1
Slating is a Skillful Tradep. 1
Chemistry, Grades, Standards And Testingp. 1
Slate Gradesp. 1
Standardsp. 1
Testingp. 2
Slate Colors And Geographical Sourcesp. 1
Slate Sizes And Weightsp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Fasteningp. 1
Felts (Underlayments)p. 1
Toolsp. 1
Slate Cutterp. 1
Slate Hammerp. 1
Slate Ripperp. 5
References And Further Readingp. 1
10Wood Shingles and Shake Roofingp. 40
Introductionp. 1
The Red Cedar Shingle & Handsplit Shake Bureaup. 1
Red Cedarp. 1
Certigrade® Red Cedar Shinglesp. 1
Certi-Split® Red Cedar Shakesp. 1
Fire Rated Red Cedar Shingles and Shakesp. 1
If It Works, Don'T Fix It.p. 1
General Design Detailsp. 1
Sheathingp. 1
Shinglesp. 1
Shakesp. 1
General Application Detailsp. 1
Shingle Applicationp. 1
Shake Applicationp. 1
Mansard Roof Detailsp. 2
Low Slope Roof Detailsp. 1
Hip And Ridge Detailsp. 1
Roof Juncture Detailsp. 1
Convex Juncturep. 1
Concave Juncturep. 1
Apex Juncturep. 1
Swept or Bell Eavep. 1
Roof Valley Flashing Detailsp. 1
Valleys-Shinglesp. 1
Valleys-Shakesp. 1
Roof Projection Flashing Detailsp. 1
Roof Fastener Guidelinesp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Staplesp. 1
Ventilation Detailsp. 1
Vapor Barrier Guidelinesp. 1
Specialty Roof Deck Detailsp. 1
Wood Deckp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Rigid Insulationp. 1
Metal Deckp. 1
Cold Weather Roof System Detailsp. 2
Specification Guidelinesp. 1
General Specification Datap. 1
Roof Application-Sheathing Boardsp. 1
Roofing Felt Interlay (for shakes only)p. 1
Roofing General Application Datap. 1
Roofing, Shingles/Shakes, Miscellaneous Flashingsp. 1
Hips and Ridgesp. 1
Nails and Nailing Shingles/Shakesp. 1
Wood Fiber Shinglesp. 1
Steam Bent Wood Shingles - "Thatch"p. 1
Shingle And Shake Problemsp. 1
Importing Increases Costp. 1
FIRE RETARDANT TREATMENTS (FRTs)p. 1
Pre-Treatmentp. 1
To Pre-Treat or Not to Pre-Treat?p. 1
Testingp. 1
Intermittent Flame Testp. 1
Spread Of Flame Testp. 1
Burning Brand Testp. 1
Flying Brand Testp. 1
Rain Testp. 1
Weathering Testp. 1
Fire Safety Brochuresp. 1
Building Codesp. 1
Canadian Standards On Shakes And Shinglesp. 1
Spray-On Preservativesp. 1
Water-borne Preservativesp. 1
Oil-Borne Preservativesp. 1
Cleaning Wood and Wood Roofsp. 1
General Application Recommendationsp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Clean Upp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 3
11Ceramic and Concrete Tilesp. 36
Introductionp. 1
Life Expectancyp. 1
What makes one tile better than another?p. 1
Overweight?p. 1
Tile Profilep. 1
Standard Tilep. 1
Glazed Tilep. 1
Glazed Tile Offers Some Protectionp. 1
Application of Glazed Tilesp. 1
Glazed Tile Costs and Qualityp. 1
Glaze Formulation - Glazes are Really Glassp. 1
Glazed Tile Selectionp. 1
Glazed Tiles are an Investmentp. 1
Concrete Tilesp. 1
Interlocking Tilesp. 1
Mortar-Set Systems And Nail-On Systemsp. 1
Material Considerationsp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Felts (Underlayments)p. 1
Time For An Inspection?p. 1
Glaze failurep. 1
Manufacturer's Field Testingp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Direct Nailingp. 1
Supplementary Details and Accessory Tilesp. 1
Tile in Snow Areasp. 1
Tiles in High Wind and Hurricane Areasp. 1
Reroofing With Tilesp. 1
Specialty Productsp. 1
New Technique Ventilates Tile Roofs at the Ridgep. 1
Clay Ridge Ventsp. 1
Recent Studies On The Testing Of Tiles - An Overviewp. 1
Codes And Standardsp. 10
Ceramic, Clay and Concrete Tile Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
12Metal Tilesp. 11
Introductionp. 1
Granulated Metal Tilesp. 2
Aluminum Tilesp. 1
Copper Shinglesp. 2
Metal Tile Finishesp. 1
Application of Metal Tiles and Panelsp. 5
Metal Tile and Tile Panel Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
13Roofing Panelsp. 14
Introductionp. 1
Polycarbonate Panelsp. 1
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Panelsp. 1
Asphalt Panelsp. 1
Metal Panelsp. 4
Roofing Panels For Residential Structuresp. 1
Recent Studies On Roofing Panels - An Overviewp. 2
NRCA Adds Roofing Panels To The Materials Guidep. 4
Roofing Panel Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
14Roofing Bitumen Asphalt and Coal Tar Pitchp. 42
Introductionp. 2
Petroleum Asphaltsp. 1
Petroleum Asphalt Manufacturep. 1
Straight Run Asphaltsp. 1
Thermal Asphaltsp. 1
Propane De-Asphaltingp. 1
Native Asphaltsp. 1
Rock Asphaltsp. 1
Lake Asphaltsp. 1
The Alberta Oil Sand Depositsp. 1
Extraction of Bitumen from Tar Sandp. 2
Upgrading Tar Sand Bitumenp. 1
Tars And Derivativesp. 1
Incompatibility of Asphalt and Coal Tar Pitch (CTP)p. 1
The Composition Of Asphaltp. 3
Composition Depends Upon Crude Sourcep. 1
Method of Manufacture Also Must be Consideredp. 1
Asphalt Manufacturingp. 1
Vacuum Reductionp. 1
Air Blown Asphaltp. 1
The Batch Processp. 1
The Continuous Processp. 2
Catalytic Asphaltp. 1
Modified Asphaltsp. 1
Road Cutbacks and Oilsp. 1
Emulsionsp. 1
Composition of Asphalt Emulsionsp. 1
Classificationp. 1
Emulsion Ingredientsp. 1
Asphaltp. 1
Waterp. 1
Emulsifying Agentsp. 1
Breakingp. 1
Curingp. 1
Factors Affecting Setting Ratep. 1
Mineral Fillersp. 1
Equiviscous Temperature (Evt)p. 1
Revisions Proposedp. 2
Testing Of Asphaltsp. 3
Fingerprint Gas Chromatographyp. 1
Weatheringp. 1
Weathering Effects of Sunlight on Asphaltp. 2
Effects of Sulfur on Weatheringp. 1
Antioxidants and Asphalt Durabilityp. 3
Fungus Attacks On Asphaltp. 1
Microbial Destruction Of Bitumenp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
15Felts, Fabrics and Reinforcementsp. 36
Introductionp. 1
Standards For Roofing And Waterproofing Materials.p. 1
Fiber/Matrix Theoryp. 1
Woven Fabricsp. 1
Non-Woven Feltsp. 1
Organic Feltsp. 1
Asbestos Feltsp. 1
Glass Fiber Feltsp. 1
Glass Compositionp. 1
Glass Fiber Mat-Making Methodsp. 2
Polyester And Other Synthetic Feltsp. 3
Durabilityp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Single Ply Roofing Membrane Reinforcementsp. 3
Polyester Fibersp. 1
The Effect Of Moisture On Roofing Feltsp. 1
Geotextiles And Geosyntheticsp. 1
Felt And Fabric Identificationp. 1
Recent Studies On Felts And Fabrics - An Overviewp. 9
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Roofing Felts, Fabrics And Reinforcementsp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
16Asphalt Shinglesp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Why Asphalt Shingles?p. 2
Step-By-Step Installationp. 1
Deck Preparationp. 1
Proper Ventilationp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Applying The Shinglesp. 1
Starter Coursep. 1
First Coursep. 1
Second and Remaining Coursesp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Detailp. 1
Fastener Guidelinesp. 1
Finish Coursep. 1
Inspection and Replacement of Damaged Shinglesp. 1
More Informationp. 1
Do-It-Yourself Roofingp. 1
Mis-Application of Asphalt Shingles Over Insulationp. 1
Fiberglass Reinforced Asphalt Shingle Manufacturep. 1
Organic Shingles Vs Fiberglass Shinglesp. 2
The Designer Shingles - Architectural, Laminatedp. 1
Weight Vs Strengthp. 1
"Designer" Problems?p. 1
Modified Bitumen Fiberglass Mat Shinglesp. 1
Metric Shinglesp. 1
The Bridging Application Methodp. 1
The Nesting Application Methodp. 1
Other Shingle Features And Accessoriesp. 3
Annual Roof Costp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Repair And Maintenancep. 1
Asphalt Shingle Recyclingp. 1
Pneumatic Toolsp. 2
The Right Toolsp. 4
Audio/Visual Trainingp. 1
Standards For Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Suppliersp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 5
17Roll Roofingp. 33
Introductionp. 1
Roll Roofing Manufacturing And Specificationsp. 1
Saturants and Coatingp. 1
Organic Felt: Asphaltp. 1
Organic Felt: Tar Saturatedp. 1
Asbestos Roofing Felts: Asphalt and Coal-Tar Saturatedp. 1
Glass-Fiber Feltp. 1
Polyester Feltsp. 1
Mineral Stabilizersp. 1
Fine Mineralsp. 1
Smooth-Surface Roll Roofing: Organic and Inorganicp. 1
Mineral-Surfaced Roll Roofingp. 1
Mineral-Surfaced Selvage-Edge Roofingp. 1
Roll Roofing Installationp. 1
Concealed Nail Methodp. 2
Exposed Nail Methodp. 2
Hips and Ridgesp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Double-Coverage Roll Roofingp. 1
Cautionp. 1
Other Materialsp. 1
Roof Pitchp. 1
Asphalt Cementp. 1
First Coursep. 1
Second Coursep. 1
Succeeding Coursesp. 1
Special Situationsp. 2
Summaryp. 1
Roll Roof Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 14
18Built-Up Roofing Systems (BUR)p. 57
Introductionp. 1
Bur Componentsp. 1
Decksp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Thermal Insulationsp. 1
Membranesp. 1
Flashingp. 1
Bitumen: The Critical Elementp. 1
Asphalt Qualityp. 1
Asphalt Contains Fluxp. 1
Coal-Tar Pitchp. 1
Selecting An Asphalt Or Coal-Tar Pitch For Burp. 1
Asphalt Selection and Heating Requirements (EVT)p. 1
Equiviscous Temperaturep. 1
Coal-Tar Pitch and Heating Requirementsp. 1
Felts And Vapor Retardersp. 2
Surfacing Materialsp. 1
Hot Applied Burp. 1
Laying Felts: The Shingle Methodp. 1
Application of Bitumenp. 1
Spot and Strip Moppingp. 1
Machine Spreadersp. 1
Tankers and Kettlesp. 1
Application Temperaturesp. 1
Heating Recommendationsp. 1
Bitumen Quantitiesp. 1
Cut-Offsp. 1
Top Pourp. 1
Gravelp. 1
The Hazards of Unfinished Finishingp. 1
Work, Weather and BURp. 2
A Word On Workmanshipp. 1
Cold Applied Bur Emulsions And Coatingsp. 1
Application of Cold Applied BURp. 1
Application Errorsp. 1
Cold-Applied Performancep. 1
Cold-Applied Polyesterp. 2
Design And Performancep. 1
Standards And Codesp. 1
Base Sheet And Deck Typesp. 1
Timber and Similar Decksp. 1
Screed Decksp. 1
Unscreed Decksp. 1
New Approaches To Flat Roof Designp. 2
Thermal Design Of The Flat Roofp. 1
The Cold Roofp. 1
Cold Roof Ventilationp. 1
The Warm Roofp. 1
Advantages of the Warm Roofp. 1
The Inverted Roofp. 1
The Causes Of Premature Bur Failuresp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Improper Drainagep. 1
Effects of Moisture and the Freeze-Thaw Cyclep. 2
Blistersp. 1
Blister Mechanicsp. 1
Testing for Moisturep. 1
Why Blisters Growp. 1
Other Factors Promoting Blister Growthsp. 1
Urethane Boards and Blisteringp. 1
Splittingp. 1
Causes of Splittingp. 1
Thermal Contractionp. 1
Thermal Shock Factor (TSF)p. 1
Insulation Movementp. 1
Ideal Insulationp. 1
Drying Shrinkagep. 1
Deck Deflectionp. 1
Stress Concentrationsp. 1
How to Improve Membrane-Splitting Resistancep. 1
Ridgingp. 1
How to Prevent Ridgingp. 1
Membrane Slippagep. 1
Preventing Slippagep. 1
Delaminationp. 2
Alligatoringp. 1
Surface Erosionp. 1
Grease and BURp. 1
Effects of Aging and Oxidationp. 1
Effects of Humidity and Temperaturep. 1
The New Age: Recycling Burp. 1
Major Built-Up Roofing Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 9
19Protected Membrane Roofing (PMR)p. 20
Introductionp. 3
Advantages Of The Pmr Roofing Systemp. 3
Composite Insulation Innovations In Pmr Systemsp. 1
Roof Terrace Applications For Pmr Systemsp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Membrane Applicationp. 2
Reroofing Detail Design With Pmr And Its Specificationp. 1
Reroofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Insulation and Filter Clothp. 1
Protected Roofing Membrane Ballast And Paversp. 3
Recent Studies On Protected Membrane Systems - An Overviewp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 4
20Hot-Applied Rubberized Asphaltp. 15
Introductionp. 2
Chemistryp. 1
Testingp. 1
Water Absorptionp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Ductilityp. 1
Toughness-Tenacityp. 1
Crack-Bridgingp. 1
Plasticity (Plastic Flow)p. 1
Resultsp. 2
Specificationsp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Reroofingp. 1
Moisture, Preparation, and Dew Pointp. 1
New Roofingp. 4
Hot Applied Rubberized Asphalt Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
21Polyurethane Foam PUF Roofing Systemsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Author'S Note - Terminologyp. 1
Composition And Chemistryp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Application Criteriap. 2
Application to Concrete Roof Decksp. 1
Application to Wood Roof Decksp. 1
Application to Steel Roofsp. 1
Application to Fluted Steel Roof Decksp. 1
Advantages And Disadvantagesp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Proper Application Proceduresp. 3
Spray PUF Equipment Operation And Material Problemsp. 3
Coverings On Sprayed-In-Place Polyurethane Foamp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Available Coatingsp. 2
Coating Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Granule Applicationp. 1
Inspection And Maintenancep. 1
How To Troubleshoot Spray-Polyerethane Foam Equipmentp. 3
Single Ply Over PUF?p. 1
Manufacturers, Distributors And Contractorsp. 4
Four Important Publications on Polyurethane Foam Roofing Systemsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 5
22Liquid Membranes and Waterproofing Coatingsp. 38
Introductionp. 1
Cold-Applied Roofing Has Been Ignoredp. 2
Cold Applied Roofing Membranesp. 1
Asphaltic Cut-Backsp. 1
Asphaltic Emulsionsp. 3
Solvent-Based Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Solvent-based materials and VOC Coating Regulationsp. 2
Chlorinated Solventsp. 1
Water/Emulsion-Based Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Emulsion Chemistryp. 1
100-Percent Solids Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Bituminous Coating Materialsp. 1
Acrylic Mastic Coatingsp. 2
Vinylidene Chloride (VDC) Copolymer Coatingsp. 2
Surface Preparationp. 1
Application Of Cold-Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 4
Cold Applied Coatings As A Surfacing Alternative For Hot Burp. 1
Acrylic Coatings Used For Maintenance On Aged Burp. 2
Rcma Manualp. 1
Recent Studies On Cold Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatings For Waterproofing - An Overviewp. 8
Cold Applied Liquid Membrane and Coating Manufacturersp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Membranesp. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Coatingsp. 3
23Foundation Wall and Underground Waterproofingp. 46
Introductionp. 1
Dampproofing vs Waterproofingp. 1
Effects of water movementp. 1
Materials For Waterproofingp. 6
Cold-Applied Liquid Waterproofing Membranesp. 2
Waterproofing And The Design Professionalp. 2
Using The Below-Grade Waterproofing Materials Tablep. 1
Longevityp. 1
Crack Bridgingp. 1
Elastic Propertiesp. 1
Resealabilityp. 1
Leak-Localizing Capabilityp. 1
Resistance to Chemicalsp. 1
Puncture Resistancep. 1
Hydrostatic Pressure Resistancep. 1
Permeability and Breathabilityp. 1
Freeze/Thaw Resistancep. 1
Shrinkagep. 1
Emulsification in Waterp. 1
Temperature and Humidity Sensitivityp. 1
Cure Timep. 1
Application and Clean-Upp. 1
Quality Controlp. 1
Compatibilityp. 1
Safetyp. 1
Seams and Grade-Line Terminationp. 1
Production Ratesp. 1
Substrate Preparationp. 1
Adaptabilityp. 1
Accessoriesp. 1
Ease of Job-Site Tie-Insp. 1
Vertical and Horizontal Applicationsp. 1
Protectionp. 1
Schedulingp. 1
Warranty Programp. 2
Available Applicatorsp. 1
Cost Effectivenessp. 1
Waterproofing Systems For Earth Sheltered Structuresp. 1
Site Planningp. 1
Landscapingp. 1
Backfilling and Drainagep. 1
Floors and Roofsp. 1
Waterproofing Membranep. 1
Recent Studies On Non-Roofing Waterproofing-An Overviewp. 5
Foundation Wall & Underground Waterproofing Manufacturersp. 1
Waterproofing Material Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 1
Waterproofing Of Earth Shelters, Pools, Reservoirsp. 1
Foreign Waterproofing Articlesp. 2
Waterproofing/Dampproofing Articles, Papers, Researchp. 2
Concrete Waterproofingp. 1
24Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 40
Introductionp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Why Single-Ply: An Historical Perspectivep. 1
The Evolution of Building Designp. 1
The European Experiencep. 1
Technical and Economical Factorsp. 1
Energy Factorsp. 1
Labor: Is BUR a Dirty Word?p. 1
Bur Battles Backp. 1
Polymer Chemistry And Single-Plyp. 1
Thermosetting vs. Thermoplasticp. 1
Single Ply Classificationsp. 1
Modified Bitumensp. 1
Prefabricated and Reinforcedp. 1
Hot Applied Rubberized Asphalts (RA)p. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Membrane (CLM)p. 1
Thermosets (Elastomers)p. 1
Thermoplasticsp. 2
Liquid Applied Systemsp. 1
Single Ply And System Designp. 2
The Ballasted Systemp. 1
The Adhered Systemp. 1
The Mechanically Attached Systemp. 1
A Basis For Selecting Roofing Membranesp. 1
Criteria For Selecting A Single-Ply For Your Roof Systemp. 1
Structural Considerationsp. 1
Deck Compositionp. 1
Load Bearing Capacityp. 1
Deck Penetrationsp. 1
Wind Uplift and Climatic Variablesp. 1
Chemical Environmentp. 1
Roof Accessp. 1
Aestheticp. 1
Building Codes and Costsp. 1
Pinpointing Problems With Single-Plyp. 1
Project Pinpoint was initiated by the NRCA in 1974.p. 1
Lap Defectsp. 1
Shrinkagep. 1
Tear and Puncturesp. 1
Delaminationp. 1
Insulationp. 1
Other Problems with Single-Plyp. 1
Distribution of Problemsp. 1
Problems With Moisture And Single-Pliesp. 2
Single-Ply Alerts For Further Considerationp. 1
Designp. 1
Fieldp. 2
Conclusionp. 1
Manufacturers of Single-ply, BUR or Bothp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 11
25Bitumen Modificationp. 26
Introductionp. 1
Viscosity/Rheologyp. 5
Molecular Weightp. 1
Compoundingp. 1
Penetrationp. 1
Handlingp. 1
Bitumen Compositionp. 1
Broad Characterization Of Bitumen Constituentsp. 1
Phase Equilibrium and Phase Separationp. 3
Polymeric Modifiersp. 1
Fillersp. 2
Bitumen/Polymer Blendingp. 3
Aging of Modified Bitumensp. 4
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
26Modified Bitumenp. 52
Introductionp. 1
It all started in Italyp. 1
Atactic Polypropylene (APP)p. 1
Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS)p. 2
UV Radiationp. 1
Fundamentalsp. 1
Current modified bitumensp. 1
Desirable featuresp. 1
Current specificationsp. 1
Fire ratingsp. 1
Wind ratingsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Structure of polymer modified bitumensp. 1
Mixing and blending of modified bitumenp. 1
Sheet manufacturep. 1
Reinforcementsp. 1
Polyesterp. 1
Fiberglassp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Modified's Limitationsp. 1
Application Precautionsp. 2
Imperative Selection Guidelinesp. 1
Technical Distinctivesp. 1
Product Comparisonsp. 1
Making the Right Choicep. 1
Better Than Bur?p. 1
Building Movementp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Uv Resistancep. 1
Performancep. 1
Testingp. 1
Recent Developmentsp. 1
Specification/Applicationp. 1
Insulationp. 1
The Membranep. 1
Recovering Applicationsp. 1
Torch-Applied Safetyp. 5
Mb Equipment Innovationsp. 1
Quality Control (Application)p. 4
Torching Versus Hot-Mopping (Application)p. 1
Modified Bitumen Educationp. 1
Modified Bitumen Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 13
27Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)p. 32
Introduction And Historyp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Energy Savingsp. 2
Applicationp. 4
Fire Resistancep. 1
Non-Penetrating Fastening Systemsp. 2
Polyester Backing Optionp. 2
Use Of Existing Equipmentp. 1
Laboratory Performance Testsp. 5
Field Quality Control And Lab Testingp. 3
Talc-Free EPDM Spliced with Butyl Tapesp. 3
Other Epdm Productsp. 1
Pricep. 1
EPDM Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
28Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomersp. 12
Introductionp. 1
Neoprenep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Compositionp. 1
The Two Types of Neoprenep. 1
Description of General Purpose Neoprenesp. 1
Description of Adhesive Type Neoprenesp. 1
Processing Neoprenesp. 1
Functions, Applications, Specifications and Installation of Neoprenep. 2
Using Neoprenes for Recovering Roofsp. 1
Neoprene Weight Limitationsp. 1
Effect of Chemical Contaminationp. 1
Additional Insulationp. 1
NITRILE BUTADIENE POLYBLENDS (NBPs)p. 1
Compositionp. 2
NBP Manufacturersp. 2
Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomers Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
29Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Elastomersp. 12
Introductionp. 1
A Generic Look At Uncured Polymersp. 1
"There'S Nothing Magic About Curing"p. 1
Elastomer Groupsp. 1
Cspep. 1
Cspe Advantagesp. 1
Cspe Disadvantagesp. 1
Cpep. 1
Hypalon/CPE Composite Membranep. 1
Nbpp. 1
Non-Vulcanized Thermoplastic Elastomer Performance Reviewp. 1
Chlorinated Polyethylene (Cpe)p. 1
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (Cspe)p. 1
Polyisobutylene (Pib)p. 1
NITRILE ALLOY with BUTADIENE ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMERS (NBP)p. 1
Insulation Informationp. 1
Repairing Cured Materialp. 1
Application Detailsp. 2
Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Elastomers Mfrs & Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
30Thermoplastic Single-Ply Membranesp. 6
Introductionp. 1
Eipp. 1
Hyloadp. 2
Thermoplastic Single-Ply Membranes Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
31Poly(vinyl) Chloride (PVC)p. 53
Introductionp. 1
Historyp. 1
Compositionp. 1
PVC Compoundingp. 3
The Importance of Plasticizersp. 2
Dimensional Stabilityp. 2
Thermal Stabilityp. 1
Chemical Resistance And Compatibilityp. 1
Applicationp. 1
The Do's of PVCp. 1
The Don'ts of PVCp. 1
Lap Jointsp. 2
Flashingsp. 2
Nightly Tie-Offsp. 1
Partial Retrofit Projectsp. 3
Standards And Specificationsp. 3
New Guidelinesp. 2
Testingp. 1
Temperature-Induced Loadp. 1
Heat Agingp. 1
Accelerated Weatheringp. 1
Puncture Damagep. 1
Shattering of PVCp. 1
Symptoms and Conditionsp. 1
Maintenance and Repairsp. 2
Other Defectsp. 2
Tensile Testsp. 2
Recent Studies On Pvc Roofing Membranes - An Overviewp. 5
Past and Present PVC Technology Contributorsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 11
32Polyisobutylene (PIB)p. 13
Introductionp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
What are the advantages of the PIB system?p. 1
Applicationp. 1
Chemistryp. 1
The System Itselfp. 1
Limitationsp. 2
Alternative Application Problemsp. 1
Repair Methodsp. 1
Manufacturep. 1
Partially Adheredp. 1
Contractor's Commentsp. 1
New Constructionp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 1
33Adhesion and Adhesivesp. 52
Introductionp. 1
Terms Used In Adhesion Science And Technologyp. 2
The Theory Of Adhesionp. 1
Adhesion Bondsp. 2
Surface energy of solidsp. 1
Interdiffusion theoryp. 1
Wetting and settingp. 2
Wood As An Adherendp. 1
Basic structure of woodp. 1
Bulk properties of woodp. 3
Plastics As Adherendsp. 1
Bulk properties of plasticsp. 3
Surfaces of plastics and their preparation for bondingp. 1
Metals As Adherendsp. 3
Metal surfaces and their preparation for bondingp. 1
Bonding elastomers to metal substratesp. 1
Selecting An Adhesivep. 1
Natural And Synthetic Rubber Adhesivesp. 2
Hot Melt Adhesivesp. 1
Thermoplastic rubbersp. 1
Adhesive Emulsionsp. 1
Acrylic Adhesivesp. 1
Phenolic Resin Adhesivesp. 1
Urea-formaldehydep. 1
Polyurethane And Isocyanate Based Adhesivesp. 1
Epoxy Resinsp. 1
Asphalt As An Adhesivep. 1
Testingp. 1
Tests on adhesivesp. 1
Tests on bonded joints and assembliesp. 2
Testing Adhesives Prior To Bondingp. 3
Tests For Screening New Adhesive Productsp. 2
Non-Destructive Testingp. 2
Adhesion And Cohesion Of Rubberized Asphaltsp. 1
Adhesion Of Coatingsp. 2
Other Useful Adhesive Informationp. 3
Adhesive Storagep. 1
Adhesive Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
34Sealants, Caulks and Joint Movementp. 39
Introductionp. 1
Building Joints and Their Theoretical Functionp. 1
Building Joint Typesp. 1
Construction Jointsp. 1
Movement and Butt Jointsp. 1
Non-Working and Static Jointsp. 1
Contraction Jointsp. 1
Expansion and Isolation Jointsp. 1
Design Considerationsp. 1
Joint Dimension - Minimum Width and Depthp. 1
Difficult Substratesp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Joint Adjustmentp. 1
Joint Contaminantsp. 1
Solventsp. 1
Plastic Substratesp. 1
Miscellaneous Substratesp. 1
Primingp. 1
Primer, solvent and sealant safety and handlingp. 1
Accessory Materialsp. 1
Filler Boardsp. 1
Foam Filler - Back-up Rodp. 1
Bond-Breakersp. 1
Back-up Materialsp. 1
Caulking Compoundsp. 1
Oil-Based Caulksp. 1
Butyl Caulksp. 1
Acrylic Latex Caulksp. 1
Solvent-Release Acrylic Caulksp. 1
Elastomeric Sealantsp. 3
Sealant Classificationp. 1
Curing Of Sealantsp. 1
Application Tips In Adverse Environmentsp. 1
Incompatibilityp. 1
Causes of Failurep. 2
Tooling And Finishingp. 1
Selecting Sealants, Sealant Manufacturers, And Applicatorsp. 1
Testing And Evaluation Of Sealantsp. 13
Adhesive, Caulking, and Sealant Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
35Lap Joint Techniques for Single-Ply Membranesp. 41
Introductionp. 1
Lap Joint Historyp. 2
Types Of Lap Jointsp. 1
Thermoplastic Materialsp. 1
Thermoset Materialsp. 1
Modified Bitumensp. 1
Plastic film parting agentsp. 1
Types Of Roofing Systemsp. 1
One-Part Butyl Adhesive Lap Joints For Epdmp. 1
Application method for butyl adhesivep. 5
What can go wrong and whyp. 2
Butyl Tapes For Epdmp. 2
Neoprene For Epdm Lap Jointsp. 1
HEAT-WELDABLE EPDMsp. 1
Hot Air Weldingp. 2
Other Methods Of Achieving A Lap Jointp. 3
Lap Joint Quality Assurancep. 1
Surface preparationp. 1
Checking seam integrityp. 4
Lap Joint Testingp. 1
Joint Integrityp. 1
One-part butyl-based and neoprene-based adhesive lap jointsp. 3
Single-Ply Field Seam Evaluationp. 5
Organizationsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 4
36Fabric Roofsp. 34
Introductionp. 2
Fabric Structure Science: How And Why It Worksp. 1
History Of Fabric Roofsp. 1
Developed For Decadesp. 1
Portable Structuresp. 1
Design Characteristicsp. 1
High Tensile And Tear Strengthsp. 1
Excellent Coating Adhesionp. 1
Non-Wickingp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Flame Resistancep. 1
Resistance To Fungus And Mildew Growthp. 1
Weldabilityp. 1
Chemical Resistancep. 1
Extended Life Spanp. 2
Energy Factorsp. 1
The Dead Air Factorp. 2
Energy Balancep. 1
Future Fabric Schemesp. 4
Testingp. 2
Testing Synopsisp. 1
Damaged Material Assessmentp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Tensionp. 4
Disadvantagesp. 1
Performancep. 1
Compliancep. 1
Future Trendsp. 1
Summaryp. 3
Fabric Roof Major Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
37Standing Seam Metallic Roofing Systemsp. 50
Introductionp. 1
Groups And Types Of Sheet Metal Roofsp. 3
Materials And Designp. 2
Slope Considerationsp. 1
Finishes On Metalsp. 1
Anodizingp. 1
Hardcoat Processp. 1
Two-Step Hardcoat Processp. 1
Porcelainsp. 1
Powdered Metal Coatingsp. 1
Architectural Coatingsp. 1
Siliconized Acrylic and Polyester Paintsp. 1
Fluoropolymersp. 1
Acrylic Polyurethanesp. 2
Metal Building Insulationp. 2
Condensation And Ventilationp. 1
Thermal Expansion And Contractionp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Galvanic Actionp. 1
Erosionp. 1
Stainingp. 1
Installationp. 1
Preparation of the Substratep. 1
Panformersp. 1
Fastening Techniques For Metal Roofing Systemsp. 1
Concrete Decksp. 1
Steel Decksp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Copper Roofing Installationp. 1
Reroofing With Metalp. 1
Reroofing over BURp. 2
Reroofing over Metalp. 1
Metal Roof Maintenancep. 1
Paintsp. 1
Coatingsp. 1
Sealantsp. 1
Maintenance Systemsp. 1
Quality Control, Performance, Standards & Metal Roofing Publicationsp. 4
Recent Studies On Metal Roofing - An Overviewp. 2
Metal Roofing Educational Coursesp. 2
Zinc Roofingp. 1
Copper Roofingp. 1
Metal Roof Terminationsp. 1
Metal Roofing Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 7
38Fasteners and Fastening Techniquesp. 43
Forewordp. 1
Introductionp. 1
General Fastener Informationp. 1
Historyp. 1
Fastener Applicationp. 1
Inspect the deckp. 1
Check the insulationp. 1
Pull-Out Testsp. 1
Determine the fastening patternp. 1
Thermal Bridgingp. 3
Installationp. 1
Safetyp. 1
Screw-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 2
Performancep. 1
Analytical Fastener Designp. 2
Wood Decksp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Nail-Type Fastening And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Nailing Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Staple-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Anchor-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Concrete decksp. 2
Tectum or Precast Lightweight Concretep. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Termination-Bars And Systemsp. 1
Non-Penetrating Fastenersp. 1
Fastening Clay Or Concrete Tilesp. 1
Historyp. 1
Fastening Roofing Tilesp. 2
Tile Tie Systemsp. 2
Tiles In High Wind Areasp. 1
New Tile Adhesivep. 1
Corrosion And Fastenersp. 1
Mechanical Fastener Testing And Researchp. 2
Fastener Standardsp. 1
Major U.S. Fastener Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 11
References And Further Readingp. 3
39Corrosion Problems and Preventive Measuresp. 57
Introductionp. 1
What Is Corrosion?p. 1
The Principle Of Galvanic Corrosionp. 2
Types Of Corrosionp. 1
General Corrosionp. 1
General Corrosion: growthp. 1
Galvanic Corrosionp. 2
Corrosion by Aeration Cellsp. 6
Biochemical Corrosionp. 1
Chemical Corrosionp. 3
Localized Corrosion (pitting)p. 1
Stress Corrosion Crackingp. 2
Corrosion Preventionp. 1
Coatingsp. 3
Corrosion Ratep. 2
The Speed of Corrosion of Carbon Steelp. 3
Corrosion of Zinc and Galvanized Steelp. 2
Stainless Steels and Duplex Systemsp. 1
Stainless Steelp. 1
Austenitic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Ferritic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Martensitic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Corrosion of Stainless Steelsp. 1
Fastener/Steel Sheet Interactionp. 3
Corrosion In Timberp. 1
Corrosion In Steel Reinforcing Of Concretep. 2
Cathodic Protection Systemsp. 2
Design Considerations for Cathodic Protection Systemsp. 1
Cathodic Protection System Typesp. 1
Testing For Corrosion Resistancep. 1
ASTM Committee G-1p. 1
Guideline Methodsp. 1
General Test Methodsp. 2
Specific Test Methodsp. 1
Reference Methodsp. 1
Corrosivity Measurement Standardsp. 1
Corrosion Forums and Control for Infrastructurep. 1
Corrosion Testing Related to Roofingp. 1
Kesternich Test (DIN-50018)p. 1
Salt Spray Testp. 1
Recent Studies On Corrosion - An Overviewp. 7
References And Further Readingp. 3
40Special, Unique and Exotic Roofsp. 49
Introductionp. 1
Roofing And Aestheticsp. 1
Advanced Roofing Technologyp. 1
Photovoltaic Roofing Systemsp. 1
Air Curtain Roofsp. 1
Definitionp. 1
The Structurep. 8
References And Further Readingp. 38

 

Volume One | Volume Two | Top

Volume Two
Chapters 41 to 80 - 1,600 Pages
Chapter NamePgs
41Roof Accessories and Componentsp. 33
Introductionp. 1
Prefabricated Roof Accessoriesp. 1
Penetrationsp. 1
Cant Stripsp. 1
Cooling Systems - Roofp. 1
Access - Roof Laddersp. 1
Closures - Edge And Ridgep. 2
Copingp. 1
Cupolasp. 1
Curbsp. 1
Drains & Strainersp. 1
Drip Edgesp. 1
Equipment Stands, Mounting (HVAC)p. 1
Curb Criteria for Roof Mounted Equipmentp. 1
Stand Mounting Criteriap. 1
Unit Installationp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Fans - Exhaust And Smoke Extractp. 1
Fasciap. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Gravel Stopsp. 1
Gutters & Down Spoutsp. 1
Guy Wire Supports - Fall Arrest Safety Roof Anchorsp. 2
Hatches & Scuttlesp. 1
Lightning Protection Systemsp. 4
Paversp. 1
Pipe Supportsp. 1
Pitch Pocketsp. 2
Scuppersp. 1
Skylightsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Ventsp. 1
Walkways & Traffic/Protection Boardsp. 1
Accessory Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 9
References And Further Readingp. 1
42Awningsp. 6
Introductionp. 1
Materialsp. 1
Protectiive Functionsp. 1
Codesp. 1
Applicationp. 2
Characteristicsp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
Awning Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
43Roof Drainage Systemsp. 19
Introductionp. 1
Why drain the roof?p. 2
Roof Drainsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Installation Guidelinesp. 1
Sizing and Location of Drainsp. 1
Hydrostatic Pressurep. 1
Further Considerationsp. 3
Designp. 1
Allowing for Deflectionp. 2
Drain Codesp. 1
Drain Guardsp. 1
Splash Blocksp. 1
Dry Wellsp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
44Expansion Joints and Building Movementp. 19
Introductionp. 1
Stress-Strain Loadingp. 4
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Joints In Conventional And Modern Roofing Systemsp. 1
Membrane Control Jointsp. 1
Unbonded Membranep. 1
Roof Expansion Jointp. 1
Roof Dividersp. 1
Recent Studies On Expansion Joints - An Overviewp. 2
Application Of Expansion Jointsp. 1
Expansion Joint Cover Assembliesp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 2
45Flashings and Counterflashingsp. 21
Introductionp. 1
Types Of Flashingp. 1
Base Flashingp. 1
Chimney Flashingp. 1
Conical-Style Flashingp. 1
Coping or Cap Flashingp. 1
Counterflashingp. 1
Eaves Flashingp. 1
Fascia Flashingp. 1
Gable Rake Flashingp. 1
Gravel Stopsp. 1
Step Flashing or Shingle Flashingp. 1
Through-Wall Flashingp. 1
Valley Flashingp. 1
Sheet Metal for Flashingsp. 1
General Considerationsp. 2
Perimeter Flashing and Scuppersp. 2
Penetration, Projection and Equipment Stand Flashingp. 2
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Flashing The Built-Up And Modified Bitumen Roofing Systemsp. 1
BUR Base Flashingsp. 1
Compatibilityp. 1
Expansion Joints for BUR Systemsp. 1
Flashing The Single-Ply Membrane Systemp. 1
Single-Ply Membrane Base Flashingp. 1
Single-Ply Copingsp. 1
Flashing The Sheet Metal And Standing Seam Roofing Systemsp. 1
Summary/Conclusionsp. 2
Manufacturer's Bindersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
46Skylights and Roof Windowsp. 38
Introductionp. 1
A Few Disadvantagesp. 1
Energy Efficiencyp. 1
Statisticsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Basic Mounting Typesp. 2
Basic Glazing Typesp. 1
Basic Functional Typesp. 1
Appearancep. 1
Shadingp. 2
Framing (Or Curb) Materialsp. 1
Installationp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Galvanic Actionp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Engineeringp. 1
Expansion jointsp. 2
Guttersp. 1
Sealantsp. 1
Light Wellsp. 4
Noise Reductionp. 1
Pre-Installation Testing and Warrantiesp. 1
Certificationp. 7
Standardsp. 1
Lead Timesp. 1
Installing A Skylight In Residential Structuresp. 3
Cutting the Roof Openingp. 8
Specialized Productsp. 1
Skylight Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
47Roof Ventsp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Vent Typesp. 1
Net Free Areap. 1
Blister Vents - Compact roofsp. 2
Breather or Stack Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
Eave or Soffit Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Gable-End Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Insulated Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
One-Way Ventsp. 1
Passive or Static Ventsp. 1
Powered Ventsp. 1
Ridge Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Roof Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Safety Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
Solar Vents - Framed and compact roofsp. 1
Two-Way Ventsp. 1
Verge or Rake Vents - Framed roofp. 1
Wicks Used for Drying Out Insulationp. 1
Vent Flashingp. 3
Explosion Relief Ventsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
48Aggregates, Granules and Protective Layersp. 34
Introductionp. 1
Gravelp. 4
Gravel for Built-Up Roofing Surfacingp. 1
Gravel for Ballast in Loosely-Laid Single Plyp. 1
Gravel Applicationp. 1
Mineral Granules For Roll Roofing, Asphalt Shingles And Cold-Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
The History of Roofing Granulesp. 3
Elimination of Segregation in Roofing Granulesp. 1
Granule Surfacing Weight-In the Production of Asphalt Roofing Shinglesp. 1
Embedding of Surface Granulesp. 1
Particle Sizep. 2
Paversp. 1
Ease of Maintenancep. 1
Weight Divisionsp. 1
Paver Applicationp. 1
Paver Application Safety and Other Considerationsp. 2
Walkwaysp. 3
Walkway Pad Applicationp. 1
Raised Metal Walkway Applicationp. 1
Studies On Protective Layers In Roofing - An Overviewp. 3
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Aggregate Granules And Gravelsp. 1
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Walkway Pads, Protection Boards, And Elevated Walkway Systemsp. 1
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Ballast Paversp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
Aggregatesp. 1
Paversp. 1
Walkwaysp. 1
49Moisture and Roofingp. 25
Introductionp. 1
What is Condensation?p. 1
Sources Of Moisturep. 3
"Breathable" Single-Ply Membranesp. 1
Precipitationp. 1
Movement Of Moisturep. 1
Vapor Transmission, Diffusion and Pressurep. 2
Loft Conversionp. 1
Capillary Actionp. 1
Effects Of Moisturep. 1
Moisture and Temperaturep. 1
Moisture's Effect on Insulationp. 2
Moisture and Thermal Resistancep. 2
Moisture's Effect on Roofing Membranesp. 3
Control Of Moisturep. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Removal of Moisturep. 3
References And Further Readingp. 6
50Moisture Measurement in the Fieldp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Moisture Surveysp. 1
Measurement Of Moisturep. 1
Non-Destructive Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Destructive Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Principles Of Roof Moisture Survey Devicesp. 6
New Field Moisture Detector for EPDM Roofsp. 1
Aerial Thermographyp. 1
Capacitance Roof Monitoring Systemsp. 1
Further Information on Nuclear Metersp. 1
Notep. 1
Moisture Detection Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
Moisture Measuring Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
Moisture Measurement Inspection Servicesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
51Moisture Measurement in the Laboratoryp. 18
Introductionp. 1
Moisture Formsp. 1
Moisture And Its Effects On Materialsp. 1
Qualitative Testing Methodsp. 2
Quantitative Testingp. 2
Quantitative Measurement Methodsp. 1
Infrared Measurementp. 1
Suction Measurementp. 3
Measuring Moisture In Woodp. 2
Gravitimetric Measurementp. 1
Fischer Titrationp. 1
Calcium Carbide Pressurep. 2
Laboratory Equipoment Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
52Ice & Snow Effects on Roofingp. 46
Introductionp. 1
Deposition of Snowp. 1
Problems of Measuring and Evaluating Snow Coverp. 1
Snow Coverp. 1
Convective Snowfallp. 1
Snow Transportp. 1
Snow Densityp. 1
Snow Load Considerations On Roofsp. 3
Ground snow loadp. 1
Roof snow loadp. 1
Full and partial loadingp. 1
Snow load coefficientsp. 1
Roofs exposed to windp. 1
Rain loadsp. 1
Basic Snow Load Coefficients and Modifications to the Coefficientsp. 4
Sliding Snow On Sloping Roofsp. 1
The Mechanics of Sliding Snowp. 1
Obstructions to Sliding Snow and Design Considerationsp. 1
Hazardous Area Below Sloping Roofsp. 1
Lateral Forces on Snow Fences and Other Obstructionsp. 1
Problems due to Ice and Meltwater from Retained Snowp. 1
Snowloading and Designp. 1
Properties Of Icep. 1
Ice Dams on Sloping Roofs of Residential Structuresp. 1
The "Cold Roof"p. 2
"Cold Roof" or "Uniform Roof?"p. 1
Effect Of Freezing And Thawing (Freeze/Thaw Cycles) Of Ice On Roofing Membranesp. 1
Design for Frost Durabilityp. 1
Membrane splittingp. 2
Recent Studies On Ice And Freeze/Thaw Cycling - An Overviewp. 1
Ice Lens Formationp. 2
Freezing/Thaw Cycle Effects on Roofingp. 4
Temperature Of Bituminous Roofing Membrane And Its Relation To Ambient Conditionsp. 10
References And Further Readingp. 7
53Fire and Roofsp. 45
Introductionp. 1
Fire Terminologyp. 1
Chemistryp. 3
Smoke Evolutionp. 2
Fire Considerations In Roof Designp. 1
Computers In Fire Sciencep. 1
Fire Codes, Standards And Testingp. 1
Roofs and Firep. 3
Combustible And Non-Combustible Roof Decksp. 1
Fire Ratings And Built-Up Roofing (Bur)p. 2
Fire Ratings And Single Pliesp. 1
Fire from without (exterior)p. 1
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.-UL 790, ASTM E-108p. 2
Intermittent-flame testp. 1
Burning brand testp. 1
Spread of flame testp. 2
Factory Mutual Research and Engineeringp. 1
The Calorimeter Testp. 1
GM Fire in Livonia, Michigan - 1953p. 2
Warnock Hersey Labsp. 1
Conducted Fire Tests And Other Relevant Informationp. 7
International Fire Rating Standardsp. 1
British Standard BS 476 - Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures:p. 1
Fire Note No. 4, London, HMSO 1970p. 1
Deutche Industrie Normen (DIN) - (German Industrial Standard)p. 1
Fire Retardant Treated (Frt) Productsp. 1
Corrosionp. 1
Structural deteriorationp. 2
Inspectionp. 1
Fire Retardant And Fire Resistant Productsp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 6
54Wind Effects on Roofingp. 49
Introductionp. 1
Effect of Wind on Roofsp. 2
Wind Loadp. 2
BUR Applicationp. 1
Securing Roof Componentsp. 4
Test Apparatusp. 1
Field Observationsp. 4
Insufficient Datap. 1
Hurricanes And Tornadoesp. 1
Hurricanesp. 4
Tornadoesp. 1
Ballasted Systemsp. 2
Mechanically Fastened Systemsp. 5
Asphalt Shinglesp. 6
Performance of Roofing Systems in Hurricane Hugop. 1
Factory Mutual Bulletins And Approval Guidesp. 1
Wind Uplift Field Testing Servicesp. 1
Buildings Designed For Wind Extremesp. 1
Roofing Systems Designed To Exploit Wind'S Effectsp. 1
Workshopsp. 2
Computerized Satellite Weather Servicep. 5
References And Further Readingp. 6
55Test Methods for Evaluating Roofing Materialsp. 33
Introductionp. 2
Performance Criteria For Roofing Materialsp. 6
Individual Roofing Material Testsp. 1
Accelerated Heat Aging - Xenon-arc and Fluorescent UV-Condensationp. 1
Accelerated Lap Joint Performance Test for Modified Bitumenp. 1
Cone Penetrationp. 1
Puncture Testsp. 1
Thermal Analysisp. 1
Thermo Mechanical Analysisp. 1
Differential Scanning Calorimetryp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Granule Embedmentp. 1
Hydrostatic Pressure Resistancep. 2
Load Twist Testp. 1
Wheel Barrow Testp. 1
Wind Uplift Testingp. 1
Heat Stability Testp. 1
Cold Room Testingp. 2
Toughness/Tenacity Testp. 4
Corrosion Testp. 1
Quality Control Testingp. 1
Relevance of Laboratory Test Methods to Actual Field Performancep. 1
Laboratory Equipment And Instrumentationp. 1
Laboratory Certification And Accreditationp. 1
Conclusionp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 4
56Testing Laboratories and Equipmentp. 47
Introductionp. 1
Testing Laboratoriesp. 1
Management and Guidelinesp. 1
Accreditation Agenciesp. 1
Waste Disposalp. 1
Selected List Of Testing Laboratoriesp. 5
Testing Equipmentp. 1
Chemical Analysisp. 1
Infrared Spectroscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 2
Ultraviolet Spectroscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Mass Spectrometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Field of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usesp. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
X-Ray Diffractionp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Gas Chromatographyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Gel Permeation Chromatographyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Electron Microscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometerp. 6
Accelerated Weathering Apparatusp. 1
Quality Control And Testing During Membrane Manufacturep. 6
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
57International Standards for Roofing Materialsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Making Good Standards Betterp. 1
International Standards For Single-Ply And Modified Bitumenp. 5
Canadian Government Standards Board (Cgsb)p. 2
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)p. 1
ENGLAND (British Standard - BS)p. 1
GERMANY (Deutche Industrie Normen - DIN)p. 1
SWITERLAND Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA)p. 1
American National Standards For Safety And Healthp. 3
American Society For Testing And Materials (Astm)p. 1
International Roofing Code Of Practicep. 1
The Users Of International Standards: Ifanp. 1
The History Of Ifanp. 2
A Selection Of National Material Standardsp. 4
Where To Find Standards Publicationsp. 1
Vendors That Sell Standardsp. 1
Resources For Topical Standardsp. 1
Online Indexesp. 1
Multinational Databasesp. 1
International Sources For Astm Standardsp. 1
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
58Performance and Durabilityp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Roof Fundamentalsp. 2
Function of a Roofp. 1
Requirements of a Roofp. 1
Structurep. 1
Aestheticsp. 1
Economyp. 1
Durabilityp. 1
Environmentp. 1
Separation Of Environmentsp. 1
Exterior Exposurep. 1
Rain Penetrationp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
A Systemic Approach to Performancep. 1
A Realistic Performance for the Roofing Industryp. 1
Current Problemsp. 1
Flat Roof Designp. 1
Flat Roof Performance Criteriap. 1
Strength and Stabilityp. 1
Weather & Rainp. 1
Snowp. 1
Windp. 1
Sunp. 1
Thermal Performancep. 1
Thermal Insulation: The Affect on Performancep. 1
Acoustic Performancep. 1
Airborne Soundp. 1
Impact Soundp. 1
Fire Resistancep. 1
Maintenance, Access & Safetyp. 1
Roof Slope: The Key To Successful Roof Performancep. 1
Why Slope?p. 1
Conclusion: Ponding is Associated with Most Premature Flat Roof Failuresp. 1
Cost Of Flat Roofs: Zero V.S. Two Percent Slopep. 1
Building Onep. 1
Building Twop. 1
Conclusion Concerning Costp. 1
Summaryp. 1
Section II: Performance Of Materialsp. 1
Built-Up Roofing (Bur)p. 1
Performance Specifications v.s. Prescriptive Specificationsp. 1
The Performance Approachp. 1
20 Performance Attributesp. 2
BUR Recommended Performance Criteriap. 3
Conclusionp. 1
Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 1
General Performance Requirementsp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
General Material Requirementsp. 1
Thicknessp. 1
Membrane Classificationp. 1
Low Elongation/High Strengthp. 1
Medium Elongation/Low to High Strengthp. 1
High Elongation/Low to Medium Strengthp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
Low-Temperature Load-Elongation Behaviorp. 1
Low Elongation/High Strengthp. 1
Medium Elongation/Low to High Strengthp. 1
High Elongation/Low to Medium Strengthp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Heat Agingp. 1
Temperature-Induced Loadp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Water Resistancep. 1
Granule Embedmentp. 1
Metal Foilp. 1
General Application Requirementsp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
Lap Jointsp. 1
Impact and Abrasionp. 1
Flashing Attachmentp. 1
Ballastp. 1
Attachmentp. 1
Chemical Contaminationp. 1
Installation Environmentp. 1
Field Performancep. 1
F.I.T.: A Method Of Determining Performance Levelsp. 1
Fatiguep. 1
Indentationp. 1
Temperaturep. 1
How F.I.T. Worksp. 1
Edpm: A 17 Year Historyp. 1
Background Datap. 1
Important Physical Properties Do Change Upon Exposurep. 1
ASTM and ME-20 Requirementsp. 1
The Long-Term Weatherability of EPDMp. 1
50 years of Exposure for EPDM (MRCA ME-20 Performancep. 1
Performance And Durability: Who Says New = Better?p. 2
Concluding Remarksp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
59Service Life Prediction of Roofing Membranesp. 27
Introductionp. 3
Service Life Prediction Using The Siplasteur Slide Rulep. 1
Background Informationp. 5
Interfacial Bond Or Adhesive Forcep. 1
Movement Of The Supporting Surfacep. 1
The Value Of Friction Force Or Adhesionp. 1
The Membrane Value - Amp. 1
Ridging And Creeping Phenomenap. 4
The Circular Slide Rule And Developed Graphsp. 1
Slide Rule Operating Instructions For Flat Roof Deck (T.A.P.)p. 3
Roofing Membrane System Configurations and their Assigned AM Valuesp. 5
Recent Studies On Durability - An Overviewp. 1
Designp. 1
The Quality of Materials and Constructionp. 1
Environmental Factorsp. 1
Periodic Inspection and Maintenancep. 2
References And Further Readingp. 1
60Inspection of Roofsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Inspection Purposesp. 1
When To Inspectp. 1
Before, During and After Constructionp. 1
As Routine Maintenancep. 1
Damage Assessmentp. 1
Property Assessment And Legal Disputesp. 1
Roofing Inspectorsp. 3
Inspection Contractsp. 1
Inspection Equipmentp. 2
Inspection Recordsp. 5
Overall Inspection Guidelinesp. 1
Inspection Do'sp. 1
Inspection Don'tsp. 1
Inspection Sequencep. 1
Inspections Upon New Constructionp. 2
Interior Of The Building, New And Existing Roofsp. 2
Inspecting The Roofp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Drains And Guttersp. 1
Edge Detailsp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Penetrationsp. 1
Surfacingp. 1
Substrate And Roof Deckp. 1
Leak Tracingp. 2
Summary Of Inspectionp. 1
Summaryp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
61Roofing Problems and Solutionsp. 17
Introductionp. 14
References And Further Readingp. 2
62Preventive Maintenance and Roof Repairp. 60
Introductionp. 1
Manufacturers' Warranties:p. 1
Maintenance From The Contractor's Viewpoint:p. 1
Maintenance for Commercial Building Roofs:p. 1
General Roof Maintenance:p. 1
Asphalt and Roll Roofing:p. 1
Split Wood Shakes:p. 1
Sawn Wood Shingles:p. 1
Clay Tile and Slate:p. 1
Concrete Tile:p. 1
Steel and Aluminum (Flat and Corrugated):p. 1
Inspection and Maintenance of Flat (Low Slope) Roofs:p. 2
Repair Of Flat Or Low Slope Roofs:p. 3
Built-Up Roofing Repairs:p. 1
Splits:p. 1
Blisters:p. 1
Ridging:p. 1
Punctures:p. 1
Single-Ply System Repairs:p. 1
Identifying The Roofing System Type:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Modified Bitumen Membranes:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Thermoplastic Membranes:p. 2
PIB (Polyisobutylene) Repairs:p. 3
Repair Procedures for Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomeric Membranes:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Neoprene:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) CSPE:p. 3
CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene):p. 1
Materials and Tools for Permanent Single-Ply Repairs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for PUF (Polyurethane Foam) Roofs:p. 1
Procedures for Repair of Roll Roofing:p. 1
Repair Of Sloped Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Asphalt Shingles:p. 1
Repair Hip Joint Shingles:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Slate and Clay Tiles:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Wood Shake (Cedar):p. 1
Covering Asphalt Shingle, Roll-Roofing, and Tar and Gravel Roofs with Wood Shake (Cedar)p. 1
Repair Procedures for PUF (Sprayed Polyurethane Foam):p. 2
Tools Needed for Repair of PUF Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Metallic Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Thatched Roofs:p. 1
Single-Ply Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Historical, Special, Unique and Exotic Roofs:p. 18
References And Further Readingp. 3
63Reroofing Guidelinesp. 52
Introductionp. 1
Reroofing is Conceptualp. 1
Inspection firstp. 2
Moisture surveysp. 1
Reroof or Repair?p. 1
Design Improvementsp. 1
Structural Load Requirements and Responsibilityp. 4
Adding A Positive Slope To Flat Roofsp. 1
Recovery, or Tear-off and Replacement?p. 2
Reroofing Planning And Preparation Guidelinesp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Drainage System Considerationsp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Nailers, Pitch Pockets and Transitionsp. 1
Rooftop equipmentp. 1
Asbestos Roofing Tearoff Alternativesp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Recover Boards, Separator Boards, Protection Boards and Overlaymentsp. 2
Increasing Thermal Resistancep. 1
Skylightsp. 1
Flues, Chimneys and Exhaust Pipesp. 1
Reroofing Code Requirementsp. 3
Roofing System Selectionp. 1
Acrylic Copolymer Cold-Applied Reinforced Membranes over Existing BURp. 2
Metal Roofing over existing BURp. 1
Attractive Metal Panelsp. 1
PUF Over Existing Roof Coveringsp. 7
Single Plies over BURp. 1
Residential Reroofingp. 1
Reroofing with Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Asphalt Shingles over Existing Wood Shakep. 1
Asphalt Shingles over Rigid Insulationp. 1
Clay Tile Reroofing Considerationsp. 2
Reroofing with Wood Shakes and Shinglesp. 1
Post-Job Inspectionp. 1
Inform The Owner Of His Responsibilityp. 1
Inform Building Personnel To Be Conscientiousp. 1
Recent Studies On Reroofing - An Overviewp. 6
Remarksp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 6
64Advice to Building and Home Ownersp. 30
Introductionp. 1
Pre-Planningp. 1
Understanding "The Performance Concept"p. 1
Terms You Should Knowp. 1
A Few Words About Drawingsp. 1
A Few Words About Building Codesp. 1
A Guide to Selecting Your Roofing Contractorp. 4
The Contract!p. 1
Items to be Covered in the Contract -- An Owner's Check Listp. 3
Before You Sign the Contractp. 1
The Owner As Contractorp. 1
Understanding Warrantiesp. 1
Hidden Costs and Chargesp. 1
The Key Questionsp. 1
A Meeting of the Mindsp. 1
Avoiding the Voiding of Warrantiesp. 1
Roof Management Program For Ownersp. 2
Making Emergency Repairsp. 1
Leak Repair Proceduresp. 1
Miscellaneous Advice to Building and Home Ownersp. 1
Understanding Service Agreementsp. 1
Membrane Identificationp. 1
Rooftop Accessp. 1
Roof System Accessp. 1
Do Owners Need a Consultant?p. 3
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
65Roofing System Selection Criteriap. 47
Introductionp. 1
100 Questions To Ask When Selecting A Roofing Systemp. 13
Overviews Of The Decision-Making Processp. 6
The Process Of Membrane Selectionp. 1
Roofing System Selection Criteria For Single-Ply Membranesp. 17
Review Of Literaturep. 2
References And Further Readingp. 6
66Roofing Application and Workmanshipp. 17
INTRODUCTION: What is Missing From this Picture?p. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Educationp. 1
Course Subjectsp. 1
Ensuring Participationp. 1
Types Of Courseworkp. 1
Conclusionp. 1
Technology, Communication And Educationp. 2
Site Supervisionp. 1
Putting Safety Firstp. 1
Quality Control: Lessons From The Far Eastp. 1
QC in the U.S.A.p. 1
The Way it Can Bep. 1
Nothing Replaces Pride Of Workmanshipp. 7
References And Further Readingp. 1
67Management, Personnel and Productivityp. 32
Introductionp. 1
Management Seminarsp. 1
Management Toolsp. 1
Listeningp. 1
The Telephonep. 1
Posters and Publicationsp. 1
Computer Technologyp. 1
Marketing Techniquesp. 1
New Roofing Versus Reroofingp. 1
Developing a Planp. 1
Developing a Sales Programp. 1
Pre-Job Conferencesp. 4
Risk Managementp. 1
Operate as a corporationp. 1
Case in pointp. 1
Medical Insurancep. 1
Success-More Than Projects Or Products-Peoplep. 1
Hiring Good Peoplep. 1
Creating Job Descriptionsp. 1
The Interviewp. 1
The Turn Downp. 1
Referencesp. 1
In The Public Eye-Employees On The Jobp. 1
An Example of a Poor Source of Informationp. 1
The Wasted Coffee Breakp. 1
Roofing Advertisementsp. 7
Roofing Anecdotesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 7
68Computers in Construction and Roofingp. 50
Introductionp. 1
Why Computerize?p. 1
Word Processingp. 1
"Open" And "Closed" Software Systemsp. 1
"Turnkeys" Or "Menu-Driven" Systemsp. 1
Multi-Tasking/Multi-User Capabilitiesp. 1
Index Files And Database Management Systems (DMSS)p. 1
Selecting Softwarep. 2
10 Tough Questionsp. 3
Electronic Estimation Tools - Spending Time To Save Timep. 1
Parallel Processing During Software Installationp. 2
Construction Software Studyp. 3
Flowchartingp. 1
CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)p. 1
Data Organization Within The Computerp. 1
Information Servicesp. 1
NRCA Members Talk About Computer Pros And Consp. 1
Good and Bad Softwarep. 1
Thoughts About Estimatingp. 1
Other Commentsp. 1
Marketing And Forecasting Softwarep. 1
Company Developed Marketing Softwarep. 2
Personal Computer (PC) Computer Aided Design (CAD)p. 1
Database Geometryp. 2
Application Software And Third-Party Software Integrationp. 1
Scanning And CD-ROMp. 1
Storing Graphics - Either Bit-Mapping Or Vectoringp. 1
Upgrading Existing Computer Softwarep. 2
The Future Of Computers In Constructionp. 1
Industry-wide Integrityp. 1
Investigation and Developmentp. 1
Market Researchp. 1
Product Testingp. 1
Database Developmentp. 1
Managing Computer Technologyp. 1
Changes in Architectural Design Team Project Managementp. 2
Features Of Some Of The Available Roofing Softwarep. 8
Computerized Roof Maintenancep. 1
Computerized Roofing Specificationsp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 4
69Safety in Roofingp. 74
Introductionp. 1
Establishing a safety programp. 1
What are the basics of a safety program?p. 2
Personal Safetyp. 1
Correct posturep. 1
Using a hammer safelyp. 1
Eye Protectionp. 1
Respiratory Protectionp. 1
Skin Protectionp. 1
Protective Clothingp. 2
Findings on Sunburnp. 1
Skin Cancerp. 1
Burn Prevention and Treatmentp. 1
Lung Cancerp. 1
Occupational Safetyp. 1
Generalp. 1
Slips on the Roofp. 1
Falling from the Roofp. 3
Do you know how to lift?p. 2
Roof Removal or Tear-Offp. 2
Equipment Safetyp. 1
Transporting Equipmentp. 1
General Equipment Safetyp. 1
Set-Up and Usagep. 1
Asphalt Tanker Safetyp. 1
Asphalt Kettle Safetyp. 2
Torch Safetyp. 1
Power Tool Safetyp. 1
Powder-Actuated Tool (PAT) Safetyp. 2
PAT Tool Operationp. 1
Ladder Safetyp. 3
Scaffold Safetyp. 1
Conveyor Safetyp. 1
In Case of An Electrical Accidentp. 1
Hoist Safetyp. 1
Fork Lift Safetyp. 1
Safety Equipmentp. 1
Respiratorsp. 1
Sloped Roof Safetyp. 1
Lifelinesp. 1
Guardrailsp. 1
Modified Bitumen Safety Gearp. 1
Safety Devices And Signsp. 1
Fall Arrestersp. 1
Material Safetyp. 1
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)p. 2
Coal Tar Pitchp. 1
Guidelines for the Use of Coal Tar Bitumen and Asphalt in the Installation of Built-Up Roofing Systemsp. 1
Single Ply Solvents and Adhesivesp. 1
Fire Safetyp. 1
Federal Government Health and Safety Agenciesp. 1
Epap. 1
Oshap. 2
Nioshp. 1
Safety Codes And Standardsp. 1
Labor and Environmental Standards Applicable to Built-Up Roofingp. 2
First Aid Measuresp. 1
Amputationp. 1
Bleedingp. 2
Burnsp. 1
Clothing Snagged In Machineryp. 1
ASPHALT or COAL TAR PITCHp. 1
Fallsp. 1
Muscle Strainsp. 1
Shock Treatmentp. 1
Hazardous Compoundsp. 3
Recent Studies On Roofing Safety - An Overviewp. 6
Educational Programs In Safetyp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 10
70Health and Roofing Practicep. 20
Introductionp. 1
Fitnessp. 1
Smokingp. 2
Misleading Advertizingp. 1
Doing Your Partp. 1
Facts About Smokingp. 2
Smoking Educationp. 1
Alcohol And Drugsp. 4
Compliance and Legalityp. 2
Drug Testingp. 1
Starting a Testing Programp. 1
Drug Testing and Controversyp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
71Guarantees, Warranties Economy and Liabilityp. 50
Legal Liability During Roofing Constructionp. 1
Applicator Agreementsp. 1
Guaranteesp. 1
Surety Bondsp. 2
What is a 20-Year Bonded Roof?p. 2
Mechanic's Liensp. 2
Liability And The Roofing Contractorp. 1
Subcontracts and Construction Disputesp. 1
Proper documentation can save your businessp. 4
Change ordersp. 1
Subcontractors are able to make claims against ownersp. 2
Arbitration versus litigationp. 2
Liability Insurancep. 1
Property Insurancep. 1
Product Liabilityp. 5
FRT Plywood Failure Liabilityp. 1
Manufacturer Warrantiesp. 1
Environmental Liabilitiesp. 1
ECONOMY: PRESENT COST vs LIFE-CYCLE COSTINGp. 5
Advantages, Limitations & Recommended Applications for Life-Cycle Costingp. 2
Other Aspects Of Life Cycle Costingp. 3
Cost effectiveness in materials productionp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 10
72Asbestosp. 39
Introductionp. 1
Abbreviationsp. 1
Forms And Properties Of Asbestosp. 1
Some silicates can crystallize as asbestos fibersp. 1
Health Hazards And Effectsp. 3
Government Regulations And Legislationp. 1
Asbestos Educationp. 1
Abatement Services And Consultationp. 4
Asbestos Use In Roofing And Constructionp. 2
Asbestos In The Homep. 5
Institutional Use Of Asbestosp. 1
Contractor'S Licensing, Liability, And Insurancep. 1
Asbestos Substitutes In Roofingp. 1
Asbestos Ply Sheetsp. 1
Flashing Materialsp. 1
Coatings And Masticsp. 1
Resaturantsp. 1
Mastic Materialsp. 1
Coatingsp. 1
Summary Of Substitutesp. 1
Summary And Conclusionp. 3
Asbestos In Canadap. 7
References And Further Readingp. 5
73Roofing Tools and Equipmentp. 92
Introductionp. 1
General Application & Miscellaneous Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Material Handling - Heavy Equipmentp. 9
Cranesp. 1
Hoistsp. 4
Small Enginesp. 2
Hand-Operated Power Toolsp. 1
Electric Power Tool Maintenancep. 3
Gas Power Tool Maintenancep. 1
Hand Operated Tools And Equipment - Manual Toolsp. 1
Laddersp. 1
Utility Beltsp. 1
Ultrasonic measuring tapep. 1
Wheel Barrowp. 1
Knee and Hip Padsp. 2
Built-Up Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Asphalt melting kettlesp. 3
Cotton and Fiberglass Mopsp. 2
Mop Buckets, Bails and Cartsp. 2
Aggregate Spreadersp. 2
Insulation Equipmentp. 1
Blowing Machinesp. 5
Insulation Blower Hosesp. 2
Insulation Spray Equipmentp. 1
Rigid Insulation Cutting Machinesp. 1
Polyurethane Roofing Equipmentp. 4
Spray Equipment For Cold Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 2
Hoses and Spray Tipsp. 1
Maintenancep. 1
Equipment Selectionp. 1
Granuling Equipmentp. 1
Reroofing Equipmentp. 1
REROOFING EQUIPMENT - Residential Roofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Roofing Spuddersp. 2
REROOFING EQUIPMENT - Commercial Roofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Water Removalp. 2
Debris Removalp. 1
Power sweeper maintenancep. 2
Vacuumsp. 2
Shingles & Shake Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Single-Ply Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Weldersp. 6
SINGLE-PLY - Hand toolsp. 4
MODIFIED BITUMEN - Torchesp. 1
MODIFIED BITUMEN - Hand Toolsp. 1
Self adhering and hot mopped modified bitumenp. 1
Slate & Tile Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Standing Seam, Sheet Metal & Roll Forming Equipmentp. 4
Roofing Tools and Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 11
References And Further Readingp. 4
74Organizations and Establishments Related to Roofingp. 8
75Roofing Publications, Training and Educationp. 54
Introductionp. 1
Published Books On Roofingp. 7
Periodicals & Trade Magazines Relevant To Roofingp. 2
A Roofing Libraryp. 17
Training, Educational Courses And Seminars On Roofingp. 2
Courses, Training Seminars And Audiovisualsp. 1
P.R.I.D.E. Manualp. 1
NRCA Publicationsp. 2
NRCA Audiovisualsp. 2
Architectural Design Competitionsp. 1
The Roofing Industry Educational Institute (RIEI)p. 3
Modified Bitumen Application Training (CERTA)p. 1
Asbestos Abatement Training Coursesp. 1
Roofing-Related Training And Educational Opportunitiesp. 2
United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers & Allied Workersp. 5
Viewing The Trade Show As An Educational Opportunityp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
76Roofing Statistics and Surveysp. 7
Introductionp. 3
A 17 Billion Dollar Industry!p. 3
References And Further Readingp. 1
77U.S. Roofing Statisticsp. 65
Table of Statistical Data/Findingsp. 2
Legend for Statistical Referencesp. 58
References And Further Readingp. 4
78International Roofing Statisticsp. 7
Table of Statistical Data/Findingsp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
79Future Trends in Roofingp. 47
Introductionp. 1
Section Ip. 1
Trends in Roof Systemsp. 1
Recyclingp. 2
Recycling BUR Membranesp. 1
Recycling Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Recycling Insulationsp. 1
Recycling Single-Plyp. 1
Recycling and System Selectionp. 1
Volatile Organic Compoundsp. 1
Regulations and Disposal Guidelinesp. 1
Regulatory Issuesp. 1
Wider Application of Performance Standardsp. 1
Warranty Trendsp. 1
Trends In The Work Forcep. 1
A Demand for Higher Skillsp. 1
Be Preparedp. 1
The Global Marketp. 2
The European Organization For Testing And Certificationp. 1
Overcoming Barriersp. 1
Construction Productsp. 2
Section IIp. 1
Bi-Functional Photovoltaic Single-Ply Membranep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Scientific Principles Of Photovoltaic (PV)p. 1
Historical Backgroundp. 5
Parameters of PV Successp. 1
Harnessing the Sun: From Foe to Friendp. 2
The Development of Photovoltaic Single-Plyp. 2
PV and Single-Ply Materials Compatibilityp. 1
Application of Single-Ply Photovoltaic Membranesp. 4
Design Criteria for Bi-functional PVSP Roof Systemsp. 1
PVSPM (PV-Single Ply Roofing Membranes) and Durabilityp. 1
Major Advantages of PVSPMp. 1
Life-Cycle Cost Advantages of Bi-Functional PVSPp. 3
Future Trendsp. 3
A Glossary Of Photovoltaic Termsp. 7
Application of PV Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 1
Photovoltaics Budget Recommendationsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
80Glossary of Terms and Abbreviationsp. 99
References And Further Readingp. 2

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