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The Science and Technology
of Traditional and Modern
Roofing Systems

by: Dr. H. Laaly

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Volume One | Volume Two | Top

Volume Two
Chapters 41 to 80 - 1,600 Pages
Chapter NamePgs
41Roof Accessories and Componentsp. 33
Introductionp. 1
Prefabricated Roof Accessoriesp. 1
Penetrationsp. 1
Cant Stripsp. 1
Cooling Systems - Roofp. 1
Access - Roof Laddersp. 1
Closures - Edge And Ridgep. 2
Copingp. 1
Cupolasp. 1
Curbsp. 1
Drains & Strainersp. 1
Drip Edgesp. 1
Equipment Stands, Mounting (HVAC)p. 1
Curb Criteria for Roof Mounted Equipmentp. 1
Stand Mounting Criteriap. 1
Unit Installationp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Fans - Exhaust And Smoke Extractp. 1
Fasciap. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Gravel Stopsp. 1
Gutters & Down Spoutsp. 1
Guy Wire Supports - Fall Arrest Safety Roof Anchorsp. 2
Hatches & Scuttlesp. 1
Lightning Protection Systemsp. 4
Paversp. 1
Pipe Supportsp. 1
Pitch Pocketsp. 2
Scuppersp. 1
Skylightsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Ventsp. 1
Walkways & Traffic/Protection Boardsp. 1
Accessory Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 9
References And Further Readingp. 1
42Awningsp. 6
Introductionp. 1
Materialsp. 1
Protectiive Functionsp. 1
Codesp. 1
Applicationp. 2
Characteristicsp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
Awning Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
43Roof Drainage Systemsp. 19
Introductionp. 1
Why drain the roof?p. 2
Roof Drainsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Installation Guidelinesp. 1
Sizing and Location of Drainsp. 1
Hydrostatic Pressurep. 1
Further Considerationsp. 3
Designp. 1
Allowing for Deflectionp. 2
Drain Codesp. 1
Drain Guardsp. 1
Splash Blocksp. 1
Dry Wellsp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
44Expansion Joints and Building Movementp. 19
Introductionp. 1
Stress-Strain Loadingp. 4
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Joints In Conventional And Modern Roofing Systemsp. 1
Membrane Control Jointsp. 1
Unbonded Membranep. 1
Roof Expansion Jointp. 1
Roof Dividersp. 1
Recent Studies On Expansion Joints - An Overviewp. 2
Application Of Expansion Jointsp. 1
Expansion Joint Cover Assembliesp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 2
45Flashings and Counterflashingsp. 21
Introductionp. 1
Types Of Flashingp. 1
Base Flashingp. 1
Chimney Flashingp. 1
Conical-Style Flashingp. 1
Coping or Cap Flashingp. 1
Counterflashingp. 1
Eaves Flashingp. 1
Fascia Flashingp. 1
Gable Rake Flashingp. 1
Gravel Stopsp. 1
Step Flashing or Shingle Flashingp. 1
Through-Wall Flashingp. 1
Valley Flashingp. 1
Sheet Metal for Flashingsp. 1
General Considerationsp. 2
Perimeter Flashing and Scuppersp. 2
Penetration, Projection and Equipment Stand Flashingp. 2
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Flashing The Built-Up And Modified Bitumen Roofing Systemsp. 1
BUR Base Flashingsp. 1
Compatibilityp. 1
Expansion Joints for BUR Systemsp. 1
Flashing The Single-Ply Membrane Systemp. 1
Single-Ply Membrane Base Flashingp. 1
Single-Ply Copingsp. 1
Flashing The Sheet Metal And Standing Seam Roofing Systemsp. 1
Summary/Conclusionsp. 2
Manufacturer's Bindersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
46Skylights and Roof Windowsp. 38
Introductionp. 1
A Few Disadvantagesp. 1
Energy Efficiencyp. 1
Statisticsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Basic Mounting Typesp. 2
Basic Glazing Typesp. 1
Basic Functional Typesp. 1
Appearancep. 1
Shadingp. 2
Framing (Or Curb) Materialsp. 1
Installationp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Galvanic Actionp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Engineeringp. 1
Expansion jointsp. 2
Guttersp. 1
Sealantsp. 1
Light Wellsp. 4
Noise Reductionp. 1
Pre-Installation Testing and Warrantiesp. 1
Certificationp. 7
Standardsp. 1
Lead Timesp. 1
Installing A Skylight In Residential Structuresp. 3
Cutting the Roof Openingp. 8
Specialized Productsp. 1
Skylight Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
47Roof Ventsp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Vent Typesp. 1
Net Free Areap. 1
Blister Vents - Compact roofsp. 2
Breather or Stack Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
Eave or Soffit Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Gable-End Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Insulated Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
One-Way Ventsp. 1
Passive or Static Ventsp. 1
Powered Ventsp. 1
Ridge Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Roof Vents - Framed roofsp. 1
Safety Vents - Compact roofsp. 1
Solar Vents - Framed and compact roofsp. 1
Two-Way Ventsp. 1
Verge or Rake Vents - Framed roofp. 1
Wicks Used for Drying Out Insulationp. 1
Vent Flashingp. 3
Explosion Relief Ventsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
48Aggregates, Granules and Protective Layersp. 34
Introductionp. 1
Gravelp. 4
Gravel for Built-Up Roofing Surfacingp. 1
Gravel for Ballast in Loosely-Laid Single Plyp. 1
Gravel Applicationp. 1
Mineral Granules For Roll Roofing, Asphalt Shingles And Cold-Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
The History of Roofing Granulesp. 3
Elimination of Segregation in Roofing Granulesp. 1
Granule Surfacing Weight-In the Production of Asphalt Roofing Shinglesp. 1
Embedding of Surface Granulesp. 1
Particle Sizep. 2
Paversp. 1
Ease of Maintenancep. 1
Weight Divisionsp. 1
Paver Applicationp. 1
Paver Application Safety and Other Considerationsp. 2
Walkwaysp. 3
Walkway Pad Applicationp. 1
Raised Metal Walkway Applicationp. 1
Studies On Protective Layers In Roofing - An Overviewp. 3
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Aggregate Granules And Gravelsp. 1
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Walkway Pads, Protection Boards, And Elevated Walkway Systemsp. 1
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Ballast Paversp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
Aggregatesp. 1
Paversp. 1
Walkwaysp. 1
49Moisture and Roofingp. 25
Introductionp. 1
What is Condensation?p. 1
Sources Of Moisturep. 3
"Breathable" Single-Ply Membranesp. 1
Precipitationp. 1
Movement Of Moisturep. 1
Vapor Transmission, Diffusion and Pressurep. 2
Loft Conversionp. 1
Capillary Actionp. 1
Effects Of Moisturep. 1
Moisture and Temperaturep. 1
Moisture's Effect on Insulationp. 2
Moisture and Thermal Resistancep. 2
Moisture's Effect on Roofing Membranesp. 3
Control Of Moisturep. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Removal of Moisturep. 3
References And Further Readingp. 6
50Moisture Measurement in the Fieldp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Moisture Surveysp. 1
Measurement Of Moisturep. 1
Non-Destructive Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Destructive Moisture Measurement Techniquesp. 1
Principles Of Roof Moisture Survey Devicesp. 6
New Field Moisture Detector for EPDM Roofsp. 1
Aerial Thermographyp. 1
Capacitance Roof Monitoring Systemsp. 1
Further Information on Nuclear Metersp. 1
Notep. 1
Moisture Detection Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
Moisture Measuring Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
Moisture Measurement Inspection Servicesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
51Moisture Measurement in the Laboratoryp. 18
Introductionp. 1
Moisture Formsp. 1
Moisture And Its Effects On Materialsp. 1
Qualitative Testing Methodsp. 2
Quantitative Testingp. 2
Quantitative Measurement Methodsp. 1
Infrared Measurementp. 1
Suction Measurementp. 3
Measuring Moisture In Woodp. 2
Gravitimetric Measurementp. 1
Fischer Titrationp. 1
Calcium Carbide Pressurep. 2
Laboratory Equipoment Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
52Ice & Snow Effects on Roofingp. 46
Introductionp. 1
Deposition of Snowp. 1
Problems of Measuring and Evaluating Snow Coverp. 1
Snow Coverp. 1
Convective Snowfallp. 1
Snow Transportp. 1
Snow Densityp. 1
Snow Load Considerations On Roofsp. 3
Ground snow loadp. 1
Roof snow loadp. 1
Full and partial loadingp. 1
Snow load coefficientsp. 1
Roofs exposed to windp. 1
Rain loadsp. 1
Basic Snow Load Coefficients and Modifications to the Coefficientsp. 4
Sliding Snow On Sloping Roofsp. 1
The Mechanics of Sliding Snowp. 1
Obstructions to Sliding Snow and Design Considerationsp. 1
Hazardous Area Below Sloping Roofsp. 1
Lateral Forces on Snow Fences and Other Obstructionsp. 1
Problems due to Ice and Meltwater from Retained Snowp. 1
Snowloading and Designp. 1
Properties Of Icep. 1
Ice Dams on Sloping Roofs of Residential Structuresp. 1
The "Cold Roof"p. 2
"Cold Roof" or "Uniform Roof?"p. 1
Effect Of Freezing And Thawing (Freeze/Thaw Cycles) Of Ice On Roofing Membranesp. 1
Design for Frost Durabilityp. 1
Membrane splittingp. 2
Recent Studies On Ice And Freeze/Thaw Cycling - An Overviewp. 1
Ice Lens Formationp. 2
Freezing/Thaw Cycle Effects on Roofingp. 4
Temperature Of Bituminous Roofing Membrane And Its Relation To Ambient Conditionsp. 10
References And Further Readingp. 7
53Fire and Roofsp. 45
Introductionp. 1
Fire Terminologyp. 1
Chemistryp. 3
Smoke Evolutionp. 2
Fire Considerations In Roof Designp. 1
Computers In Fire Sciencep. 1
Fire Codes, Standards And Testingp. 1
Roofs and Firep. 3
Combustible And Non-Combustible Roof Decksp. 1
Fire Ratings And Built-Up Roofing (Bur)p. 2
Fire Ratings And Single Pliesp. 1
Fire from without (exterior)p. 1
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.-UL 790, ASTM E-108p. 2
Intermittent-flame testp. 1
Burning brand testp. 1
Spread of flame testp. 2
Factory Mutual Research and Engineeringp. 1
The Calorimeter Testp. 1
GM Fire in Livonia, Michigan - 1953p. 2
Warnock Hersey Labsp. 1
Conducted Fire Tests And Other Relevant Informationp. 7
International Fire Rating Standardsp. 1
British Standard BS 476 - Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures:p. 1
Fire Note No. 4, London, HMSO 1970p. 1
Deutche Industrie Normen (DIN) - (German Industrial Standard)p. 1
Fire Retardant Treated (Frt) Productsp. 1
Corrosionp. 1
Structural deteriorationp. 2
Inspectionp. 1
Fire Retardant And Fire Resistant Productsp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 6
54Wind Effects on Roofingp. 49
Introductionp. 1
Effect of Wind on Roofsp. 2
Wind Loadp. 2
BUR Applicationp. 1
Securing Roof Componentsp. 4
Test Apparatusp. 1
Field Observationsp. 4
Insufficient Datap. 1
Hurricanes And Tornadoesp. 1
Hurricanesp. 4
Tornadoesp. 1
Ballasted Systemsp. 2
Mechanically Fastened Systemsp. 5
Asphalt Shinglesp. 6
Performance of Roofing Systems in Hurricane Hugop. 1
Factory Mutual Bulletins And Approval Guidesp. 1
Wind Uplift Field Testing Servicesp. 1
Buildings Designed For Wind Extremesp. 1
Roofing Systems Designed To Exploit Wind'S Effectsp. 1
Workshopsp. 2
Computerized Satellite Weather Servicep. 5
References And Further Readingp. 6
55Test Methods for Evaluating Roofing Materialsp. 33
Introductionp. 2
Performance Criteria For Roofing Materialsp. 6
Individual Roofing Material Testsp. 1
Accelerated Heat Aging - Xenon-arc and Fluorescent UV-Condensationp. 1
Accelerated Lap Joint Performance Test for Modified Bitumenp. 1
Cone Penetrationp. 1
Puncture Testsp. 1
Thermal Analysisp. 1
Thermo Mechanical Analysisp. 1
Differential Scanning Calorimetryp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Granule Embedmentp. 1
Hydrostatic Pressure Resistancep. 2
Load Twist Testp. 1
Wheel Barrow Testp. 1
Wind Uplift Testingp. 1
Heat Stability Testp. 1
Cold Room Testingp. 2
Toughness/Tenacity Testp. 4
Corrosion Testp. 1
Quality Control Testingp. 1
Relevance of Laboratory Test Methods to Actual Field Performancep. 1
Laboratory Equipment And Instrumentationp. 1
Laboratory Certification And Accreditationp. 1
Conclusionp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 4
56Testing Laboratories and Equipmentp. 47
Introductionp. 1
Testing Laboratoriesp. 1
Management and Guidelinesp. 1
Accreditation Agenciesp. 1
Waste Disposalp. 1
Selected List Of Testing Laboratoriesp. 5
Testing Equipmentp. 1
Chemical Analysisp. 1
Infrared Spectroscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 2
Ultraviolet Spectroscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Mass Spectrometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Field of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usesp. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometryp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
X-Ray Diffractionp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Gas Chromatographyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Gel Permeation Chromatographyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Electron Microscopyp. 1
Scope of Methodp. 1
Principle of Methodp. 1
Available Instrumentationp. 1
Fields of Applicationp. 1
Qualitative Usep. 1
Quantitative Usep. 1
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometerp. 6
Accelerated Weathering Apparatusp. 1
Quality Control And Testing During Membrane Manufacturep. 6
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
57International Standards for Roofing Materialsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Making Good Standards Betterp. 1
International Standards For Single-Ply And Modified Bitumenp. 5
Canadian Government Standards Board (Cgsb)p. 2
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)p. 1
ENGLAND (British Standard - BS)p. 1
GERMANY (Deutche Industrie Normen - DIN)p. 1
SWITERLAND Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA)p. 1
American National Standards For Safety And Healthp. 3
American Society For Testing And Materials (Astm)p. 1
International Roofing Code Of Practicep. 1
The Users Of International Standards: Ifanp. 1
The History Of Ifanp. 2
A Selection Of National Material Standardsp. 4
Where To Find Standards Publicationsp. 1
Vendors That Sell Standardsp. 1
Resources For Topical Standardsp. 1
Online Indexesp. 1
Multinational Databasesp. 1
International Sources For Astm Standardsp. 1
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
58Performance and Durabilityp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Roof Fundamentalsp. 2
Function of a Roofp. 1
Requirements of a Roofp. 1
Structurep. 1
Aestheticsp. 1
Economyp. 1
Durabilityp. 1
Environmentp. 1
Separation Of Environmentsp. 1
Exterior Exposurep. 1
Rain Penetrationp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
A Systemic Approach to Performancep. 1
A Realistic Performance for the Roofing Industryp. 1
Current Problemsp. 1
Flat Roof Designp. 1
Flat Roof Performance Criteriap. 1
Strength and Stabilityp. 1
Weather & Rainp. 1
Snowp. 1
Windp. 1
Sunp. 1
Thermal Performancep. 1
Thermal Insulation: The Affect on Performancep. 1
Acoustic Performancep. 1
Airborne Soundp. 1
Impact Soundp. 1
Fire Resistancep. 1
Maintenance, Access & Safetyp. 1
Roof Slope: The Key To Successful Roof Performancep. 1
Why Slope?p. 1
Conclusion: Ponding is Associated with Most Premature Flat Roof Failuresp. 1
Cost Of Flat Roofs: Zero V.S. Two Percent Slopep. 1
Building Onep. 1
Building Twop. 1
Conclusion Concerning Costp. 1
Summaryp. 1
Section II: Performance Of Materialsp. 1
Built-Up Roofing (Bur)p. 1
Performance Specifications v.s. Prescriptive Specificationsp. 1
The Performance Approachp. 1
20 Performance Attributesp. 2
BUR Recommended Performance Criteriap. 3
Conclusionp. 1
Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 1
General Performance Requirementsp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
General Material Requirementsp. 1
Thicknessp. 1
Membrane Classificationp. 1
Low Elongation/High Strengthp. 1
Medium Elongation/Low to High Strengthp. 1
High Elongation/Low to Medium Strengthp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
Low-Temperature Load-Elongation Behaviorp. 1
Low Elongation/High Strengthp. 1
Medium Elongation/Low to High Strengthp. 1
High Elongation/Low to Medium Strengthp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Heat Agingp. 1
Temperature-Induced Loadp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Water Resistancep. 1
Granule Embedmentp. 1
Metal Foilp. 1
General Application Requirementsp. 1
Specific Requirementsp. 1
Lap Jointsp. 1
Impact and Abrasionp. 1
Flashing Attachmentp. 1
Ballastp. 1
Attachmentp. 1
Chemical Contaminationp. 1
Installation Environmentp. 1
Field Performancep. 1
F.I.T.: A Method Of Determining Performance Levelsp. 1
Fatiguep. 1
Indentationp. 1
Temperaturep. 1
How F.I.T. Worksp. 1
Edpm: A 17 Year Historyp. 1
Background Datap. 1
Important Physical Properties Do Change Upon Exposurep. 1
ASTM and ME-20 Requirementsp. 1
The Long-Term Weatherability of EPDMp. 1
50 years of Exposure for EPDM (MRCA ME-20 Performancep. 1
Performance And Durability: Who Says New = Better?p. 2
Concluding Remarksp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
59Service Life Prediction of Roofing Membranesp. 27
Introductionp. 3
Service Life Prediction Using The Siplasteur Slide Rulep. 1
Background Informationp. 5
Interfacial Bond Or Adhesive Forcep. 1
Movement Of The Supporting Surfacep. 1
The Value Of Friction Force Or Adhesionp. 1
The Membrane Value - Amp. 1
Ridging And Creeping Phenomenap. 4
The Circular Slide Rule And Developed Graphsp. 1
Slide Rule Operating Instructions For Flat Roof Deck (T.A.P.)p. 3
Roofing Membrane System Configurations and their Assigned AM Valuesp. 5
Recent Studies On Durability - An Overviewp. 1
Designp. 1
The Quality of Materials and Constructionp. 1
Environmental Factorsp. 1
Periodic Inspection and Maintenancep. 2
References And Further Readingp. 1
60Inspection of Roofsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Inspection Purposesp. 1
When To Inspectp. 1
Before, During and After Constructionp. 1
As Routine Maintenancep. 1
Damage Assessmentp. 1
Property Assessment And Legal Disputesp. 1
Roofing Inspectorsp. 3
Inspection Contractsp. 1
Inspection Equipmentp. 2
Inspection Recordsp. 5
Overall Inspection Guidelinesp. 1
Inspection Do'sp. 1
Inspection Don'tsp. 1
Inspection Sequencep. 1
Inspections Upon New Constructionp. 2
Interior Of The Building, New And Existing Roofsp. 2
Inspecting The Roofp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Drains And Guttersp. 1
Edge Detailsp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Penetrationsp. 1
Surfacingp. 1
Substrate And Roof Deckp. 1
Leak Tracingp. 2
Summary Of Inspectionp. 1
Summaryp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
61Roofing Problems and Solutionsp. 17
Introductionp. 14
References And Further Readingp. 2
62Preventive Maintenance and Roof Repairp. 60
Introductionp. 1
Manufacturers' Warranties:p. 1
Maintenance From The Contractor's Viewpoint:p. 1
Maintenance for Commercial Building Roofs:p. 1
General Roof Maintenance:p. 1
Asphalt and Roll Roofing:p. 1
Split Wood Shakes:p. 1
Sawn Wood Shingles:p. 1
Clay Tile and Slate:p. 1
Concrete Tile:p. 1
Steel and Aluminum (Flat and Corrugated):p. 1
Inspection and Maintenance of Flat (Low Slope) Roofs:p. 2
Repair Of Flat Or Low Slope Roofs:p. 3
Built-Up Roofing Repairs:p. 1
Splits:p. 1
Blisters:p. 1
Ridging:p. 1
Punctures:p. 1
Single-Ply System Repairs:p. 1
Identifying The Roofing System Type:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Modified Bitumen Membranes:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Thermoplastic Membranes:p. 2
PIB (Polyisobutylene) Repairs:p. 3
Repair Procedures for Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomeric Membranes:p. 2
Repair Procedures for Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Neoprene:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) CSPE:p. 3
CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene):p. 1
Materials and Tools for Permanent Single-Ply Repairs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for PUF (Polyurethane Foam) Roofs:p. 1
Procedures for Repair of Roll Roofing:p. 1
Repair Of Sloped Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Asphalt Shingles:p. 1
Repair Hip Joint Shingles:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Slate and Clay Tiles:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Wood Shake (Cedar):p. 1
Covering Asphalt Shingle, Roll-Roofing, and Tar and Gravel Roofs with Wood Shake (Cedar)p. 1
Repair Procedures for PUF (Sprayed Polyurethane Foam):p. 2
Tools Needed for Repair of PUF Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Metallic Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Thatched Roofs:p. 1
Single-Ply Roofs:p. 1
Repair Procedures for Historical, Special, Unique and Exotic Roofs:p. 18
References And Further Readingp. 3
63Reroofing Guidelinesp. 52
Introductionp. 1
Reroofing is Conceptualp. 1
Inspection firstp. 2
Moisture surveysp. 1
Reroof or Repair?p. 1
Design Improvementsp. 1
Structural Load Requirements and Responsibilityp. 4
Adding A Positive Slope To Flat Roofsp. 1
Recovery, or Tear-off and Replacement?p. 2
Reroofing Planning And Preparation Guidelinesp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Drainage System Considerationsp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Nailers, Pitch Pockets and Transitionsp. 1
Rooftop equipmentp. 1
Asbestos Roofing Tearoff Alternativesp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Recover Boards, Separator Boards, Protection Boards and Overlaymentsp. 2
Increasing Thermal Resistancep. 1
Skylightsp. 1
Flues, Chimneys and Exhaust Pipesp. 1
Reroofing Code Requirementsp. 3
Roofing System Selectionp. 1
Acrylic Copolymer Cold-Applied Reinforced Membranes over Existing BURp. 2
Metal Roofing over existing BURp. 1
Attractive Metal Panelsp. 1
PUF Over Existing Roof Coveringsp. 7
Single Plies over BURp. 1
Residential Reroofingp. 1
Reroofing with Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Asphalt Shingles over Existing Wood Shakep. 1
Asphalt Shingles over Rigid Insulationp. 1
Clay Tile Reroofing Considerationsp. 2
Reroofing with Wood Shakes and Shinglesp. 1
Post-Job Inspectionp. 1
Inform The Owner Of His Responsibilityp. 1
Inform Building Personnel To Be Conscientiousp. 1
Recent Studies On Reroofing - An Overviewp. 6
Remarksp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 6
64Advice to Building and Home Ownersp. 30
Introductionp. 1
Pre-Planningp. 1
Understanding "The Performance Concept"p. 1
Terms You Should Knowp. 1
A Few Words About Drawingsp. 1
A Few Words About Building Codesp. 1
A Guide to Selecting Your Roofing Contractorp. 4
The Contract!p. 1
Items to be Covered in the Contract -- An Owner's Check Listp. 3
Before You Sign the Contractp. 1
The Owner As Contractorp. 1
Understanding Warrantiesp. 1
Hidden Costs and Chargesp. 1
The Key Questionsp. 1
A Meeting of the Mindsp. 1
Avoiding the Voiding of Warrantiesp. 1
Roof Management Program For Ownersp. 2
Making Emergency Repairsp. 1
Leak Repair Proceduresp. 1
Miscellaneous Advice to Building and Home Ownersp. 1
Understanding Service Agreementsp. 1
Membrane Identificationp. 1
Rooftop Accessp. 1
Roof System Accessp. 1
Do Owners Need a Consultant?p. 3
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
65Roofing System Selection Criteriap. 47
Introductionp. 1
100 Questions To Ask When Selecting A Roofing Systemp. 13
Overviews Of The Decision-Making Processp. 6
The Process Of Membrane Selectionp. 1
Roofing System Selection Criteria For Single-Ply Membranesp. 17
Review Of Literaturep. 2
References And Further Readingp. 6
66Roofing Application and Workmanshipp. 17
INTRODUCTION: What is Missing From this Picture?p. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Educationp. 1
Course Subjectsp. 1
Ensuring Participationp. 1
Types Of Courseworkp. 1
Conclusionp. 1
Technology, Communication And Educationp. 2
Site Supervisionp. 1
Putting Safety Firstp. 1
Quality Control: Lessons From The Far Eastp. 1
QC in the U.S.A.p. 1
The Way it Can Bep. 1
Nothing Replaces Pride Of Workmanshipp. 7
References And Further Readingp. 1
67Management, Personnel and Productivityp. 32
Introductionp. 1
Management Seminarsp. 1
Management Toolsp. 1
Listeningp. 1
The Telephonep. 1
Posters and Publicationsp. 1
Computer Technologyp. 1
Marketing Techniquesp. 1
New Roofing Versus Reroofingp. 1
Developing a Planp. 1
Developing a Sales Programp. 1
Pre-Job Conferencesp. 4
Risk Managementp. 1
Operate as a corporationp. 1
Case in pointp. 1
Medical Insurancep. 1
Success-More Than Projects Or Products-Peoplep. 1
Hiring Good Peoplep. 1
Creating Job Descriptionsp. 1
The Interviewp. 1
The Turn Downp. 1
Referencesp. 1
In The Public Eye-Employees On The Jobp. 1
An Example of a Poor Source of Informationp. 1
The Wasted Coffee Breakp. 1
Roofing Advertisementsp. 7
Roofing Anecdotesp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 7
68Computers in Construction and Roofingp. 50
Introductionp. 1
Why Computerize?p. 1
Word Processingp. 1
"Open" And "Closed" Software Systemsp. 1
"Turnkeys" Or "Menu-Driven" Systemsp. 1
Multi-Tasking/Multi-User Capabilitiesp. 1
Index Files And Database Management Systems (DMSS)p. 1
Selecting Softwarep. 2
10 Tough Questionsp. 3
Electronic Estimation Tools - Spending Time To Save Timep. 1
Parallel Processing During Software Installationp. 2
Construction Software Studyp. 3
Flowchartingp. 1
CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)p. 1
Data Organization Within The Computerp. 1
Information Servicesp. 1
NRCA Members Talk About Computer Pros And Consp. 1
Good and Bad Softwarep. 1
Thoughts About Estimatingp. 1
Other Commentsp. 1
Marketing And Forecasting Softwarep. 1
Company Developed Marketing Softwarep. 2
Personal Computer (PC) Computer Aided Design (CAD)p. 1
Database Geometryp. 2
Application Software And Third-Party Software Integrationp. 1
Scanning And CD-ROMp. 1
Storing Graphics - Either Bit-Mapping Or Vectoringp. 1
Upgrading Existing Computer Softwarep. 2
The Future Of Computers In Constructionp. 1
Industry-wide Integrityp. 1
Investigation and Developmentp. 1
Market Researchp. 1
Product Testingp. 1
Database Developmentp. 1
Managing Computer Technologyp. 1
Changes in Architectural Design Team Project Managementp. 2
Features Of Some Of The Available Roofing Softwarep. 8
Computerized Roof Maintenancep. 1
Computerized Roofing Specificationsp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 4
69Safety in Roofingp. 74
Introductionp. 1
Establishing a safety programp. 1
What are the basics of a safety program?p. 2
Personal Safetyp. 1
Correct posturep. 1
Using a hammer safelyp. 1
Eye Protectionp. 1
Respiratory Protectionp. 1
Skin Protectionp. 1
Protective Clothingp. 2
Findings on Sunburnp. 1
Skin Cancerp. 1
Burn Prevention and Treatmentp. 1
Lung Cancerp. 1
Occupational Safetyp. 1
Generalp. 1
Slips on the Roofp. 1
Falling from the Roofp. 3
Do you know how to lift?p. 2
Roof Removal or Tear-Offp. 2
Equipment Safetyp. 1
Transporting Equipmentp. 1
General Equipment Safetyp. 1
Set-Up and Usagep. 1
Asphalt Tanker Safetyp. 1
Asphalt Kettle Safetyp. 2
Torch Safetyp. 1
Power Tool Safetyp. 1
Powder-Actuated Tool (PAT) Safetyp. 2
PAT Tool Operationp. 1
Ladder Safetyp. 3
Scaffold Safetyp. 1
Conveyor Safetyp. 1
In Case of An Electrical Accidentp. 1
Hoist Safetyp. 1
Fork Lift Safetyp. 1
Safety Equipmentp. 1
Respiratorsp. 1
Sloped Roof Safetyp. 1
Lifelinesp. 1
Guardrailsp. 1
Modified Bitumen Safety Gearp. 1
Safety Devices And Signsp. 1
Fall Arrestersp. 1
Material Safetyp. 1
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)p. 2
Coal Tar Pitchp. 1
Guidelines for the Use of Coal Tar Bitumen and Asphalt in the Installation of Built-Up Roofing Systemsp. 1
Single Ply Solvents and Adhesivesp. 1
Fire Safetyp. 1
Federal Government Health and Safety Agenciesp. 1
Epap. 1
Oshap. 2
Nioshp. 1
Safety Codes And Standardsp. 1
Labor and Environmental Standards Applicable to Built-Up Roofingp. 2
First Aid Measuresp. 1
Amputationp. 1
Bleedingp. 2
Burnsp. 1
Clothing Snagged In Machineryp. 1
ASPHALT or COAL TAR PITCHp. 1
Fallsp. 1
Muscle Strainsp. 1
Shock Treatmentp. 1
Hazardous Compoundsp. 3
Recent Studies On Roofing Safety - An Overviewp. 6
Educational Programs In Safetyp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 10
70Health and Roofing Practicep. 20
Introductionp. 1
Fitnessp. 1
Smokingp. 2
Misleading Advertizingp. 1
Doing Your Partp. 1
Facts About Smokingp. 2
Smoking Educationp. 1
Alcohol And Drugsp. 4
Compliance and Legalityp. 2
Drug Testingp. 1
Starting a Testing Programp. 1
Drug Testing and Controversyp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
71Guarantees, Warranties Economy and Liabilityp. 50
Legal Liability During Roofing Constructionp. 1
Applicator Agreementsp. 1
Guaranteesp. 1
Surety Bondsp. 2
What is a 20-Year Bonded Roof?p. 2
Mechanic's Liensp. 2
Liability And The Roofing Contractorp. 1
Subcontracts and Construction Disputesp. 1
Proper documentation can save your businessp. 4
Change ordersp. 1
Subcontractors are able to make claims against ownersp. 2
Arbitration versus litigationp. 2
Liability Insurancep. 1
Property Insurancep. 1
Product Liabilityp. 5
FRT Plywood Failure Liabilityp. 1
Manufacturer Warrantiesp. 1
Environmental Liabilitiesp. 1
ECONOMY: PRESENT COST vs LIFE-CYCLE COSTINGp. 5
Advantages, Limitations & Recommended Applications for Life-Cycle Costingp. 2
Other Aspects Of Life Cycle Costingp. 3
Cost effectiveness in materials productionp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 10
72Asbestosp. 39
Introductionp. 1
Abbreviationsp. 1
Forms And Properties Of Asbestosp. 1
Some silicates can crystallize as asbestos fibersp. 1
Health Hazards And Effectsp. 3
Government Regulations And Legislationp. 1
Asbestos Educationp. 1
Abatement Services And Consultationp. 4
Asbestos Use In Roofing And Constructionp. 2
Asbestos In The Homep. 5
Institutional Use Of Asbestosp. 1
Contractor'S Licensing, Liability, And Insurancep. 1
Asbestos Substitutes In Roofingp. 1
Asbestos Ply Sheetsp. 1
Flashing Materialsp. 1
Coatings And Masticsp. 1
Resaturantsp. 1
Mastic Materialsp. 1
Coatingsp. 1
Summary Of Substitutesp. 1
Summary And Conclusionp. 3
Asbestos In Canadap. 7
References And Further Readingp. 5
73Roofing Tools and Equipmentp. 92
Introductionp. 1
General Application & Miscellaneous Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Material Handling - Heavy Equipmentp. 9
Cranesp. 1
Hoistsp. 4
Small Enginesp. 2
Hand-Operated Power Toolsp. 1
Electric Power Tool Maintenancep. 3
Gas Power Tool Maintenancep. 1
Hand Operated Tools And Equipment - Manual Toolsp. 1
Laddersp. 1
Utility Beltsp. 1
Ultrasonic measuring tapep. 1
Wheel Barrowp. 1
Knee and Hip Padsp. 2
Built-Up Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Asphalt melting kettlesp. 3
Cotton and Fiberglass Mopsp. 2
Mop Buckets, Bails and Cartsp. 2
Aggregate Spreadersp. 2
Insulation Equipmentp. 1
Blowing Machinesp. 5
Insulation Blower Hosesp. 2
Insulation Spray Equipmentp. 1
Rigid Insulation Cutting Machinesp. 1
Polyurethane Roofing Equipmentp. 4
Spray Equipment For Cold Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 2
Hoses and Spray Tipsp. 1
Maintenancep. 1
Equipment Selectionp. 1
Granuling Equipmentp. 1
Reroofing Equipmentp. 1
REROOFING EQUIPMENT - Residential Roofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Roofing Spuddersp. 2
REROOFING EQUIPMENT - Commercial Roofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Water Removalp. 2
Debris Removalp. 1
Power sweeper maintenancep. 2
Vacuumsp. 2
Shingles & Shake Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Single-Ply Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Weldersp. 6
SINGLE-PLY - Hand toolsp. 4
MODIFIED BITUMEN - Torchesp. 1
MODIFIED BITUMEN - Hand Toolsp. 1
Self adhering and hot mopped modified bitumenp. 1
Slate & Tile Roofing Equipmentp. 1
Standing Seam, Sheet Metal & Roll Forming Equipmentp. 4
Roofing Tools and Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 11
References And Further Readingp. 4
74Organizations and Establishments Related to Roofingp. 8
75Roofing Publications, Training and Educationp. 54
Introductionp. 1
Published Books On Roofingp. 7
Periodicals & Trade Magazines Relevant To Roofingp. 2
A Roofing Libraryp. 17
Training, Educational Courses And Seminars On Roofingp. 2
Courses, Training Seminars And Audiovisualsp. 1
P.R.I.D.E. Manualp. 1
NRCA Publicationsp. 2
NRCA Audiovisualsp. 2
Architectural Design Competitionsp. 1
The Roofing Industry Educational Institute (RIEI)p. 3
Modified Bitumen Application Training (CERTA)p. 1
Asbestos Abatement Training Coursesp. 1
Roofing-Related Training And Educational Opportunitiesp. 2
United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers & Allied Workersp. 5
Viewing The Trade Show As An Educational Opportunityp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
76Roofing Statistics and Surveysp. 7
Introductionp. 3
A 17 Billion Dollar Industry!p. 3
References And Further Readingp. 1
77U.S. Roofing Statisticsp. 65
Table of Statistical Data/Findingsp. 2
Legend for Statistical Referencesp. 58
References And Further Readingp. 4
78International Roofing Statisticsp. 7
Table of Statistical Data/Findingsp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
79Future Trends in Roofingp. 47
Introductionp. 1
Section Ip. 1
Trends in Roof Systemsp. 1
Recyclingp. 2
Recycling BUR Membranesp. 1
Recycling Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Recycling Insulationsp. 1
Recycling Single-Plyp. 1
Recycling and System Selectionp. 1
Volatile Organic Compoundsp. 1
Regulations and Disposal Guidelinesp. 1
Regulatory Issuesp. 1
Wider Application of Performance Standardsp. 1
Warranty Trendsp. 1
Trends In The Work Forcep. 1
A Demand for Higher Skillsp. 1
Be Preparedp. 1
The Global Marketp. 2
The European Organization For Testing And Certificationp. 1
Overcoming Barriersp. 1
Construction Productsp. 2
Section IIp. 1
Bi-Functional Photovoltaic Single-Ply Membranep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Scientific Principles Of Photovoltaic (PV)p. 1
Historical Backgroundp. 5
Parameters of PV Successp. 1
Harnessing the Sun: From Foe to Friendp. 2
The Development of Photovoltaic Single-Plyp. 2
PV and Single-Ply Materials Compatibilityp. 1
Application of Single-Ply Photovoltaic Membranesp. 4
Design Criteria for Bi-functional PVSP Roof Systemsp. 1
PVSPM (PV-Single Ply Roofing Membranes) and Durabilityp. 1
Major Advantages of PVSPMp. 1
Life-Cycle Cost Advantages of Bi-Functional PVSPp. 3
Future Trendsp. 3
A Glossary Of Photovoltaic Termsp. 7
Application of PV Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 1
Photovoltaics Budget Recommendationsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
80Glossary of Terms and Abbreviationsp. 99
References And Further Readingp. 2