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The Science and Technology
of Traditional and Modern
Roofing Systems

by: Dr. H. Laaly

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Expanded Table of Contents
 
Volume One
Chapters 1 to 40 - 1,552 Pages
1Introduction to Roofingp. 6
2Roofing Historyp. 16
Introductionp. 1
Roofing Technology - A Selected Chronologyp. 13
Concluding Remarksp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
3Roofing Material Properties and Productionp. 41
Introductionp. 1
Woodp. 3
Wood Preservativesp. 1
Wood Propertiesp. 1
Wood Manufacturingp. 1
Metalp. 7
Cement And Concretep. 11
Plasticsp. 8
References And Further Readingp. 6
4Roofing Structure, Design and Detailsp. 71
Introductionp. 2
The Ultimate Rule in Roof Designp. 2
Informative Designingp. 1
Life-Cycle Costingp. 1
Structural Load Designp. 1
Elastic Deformationp. 2
Wooden Roof Structurep. 1
Structural Steel Designp. 2
Roof Drainage Design Calculationsp. 3
Roof Drainage Designsp. 3
An Alternative School Of Thoughtp. 2
Parapet Wall Structural Design Using Portland Cement Plasterp. 2
Causes Of Roofing Failuresp. 1
Communicating Roofing Designp. 1
Structural Considerations And Roof Decksp. 1
Insulationp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Fire And Wind Considerationsp. 1
Earthquake-Resistant Roof Designp. 1
Pest Infestation And Roof Designp. 1
Residential Ceiling And Roof Framingp. 1
Flat Roofsp. 1
Pitched Roofsp. 1
Framing the Roofp. 6
Residential Flat Roof To Steep Roof Conversionp. 3
Roof Construction Detailsp. 4
Generic Details For Modified Bitumenp. 1
Basic Flashing History and Guidelinesp. 1
Penetration Flashingsp. 1
Little Holesp. 2
Collar Penetration Flashingp. 3
Smaller Holes, Tougher Holesp. 3
Where Penetration is Avoidedp. 1
Overflow Scupper Penetrationsp. 1
The Unflashable Penetrationp. 2
Late Damagep. 1
Expansion Joint Guidelinesp. 1
The Overriding Flashing Considerationsp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 15
5Roof Decksp. 30
Introductionp. 2
Roof Slopep. 2
Deflectionp. 1
Recommendations for avoidance of defectsp. 1
Dimensional stabilityp. 1
Moisture Absorptionp. 1
Moisture Proofingp. 1
Fireproofingp. 1
Anchorage and Attachmentp. 1
Deck Surfacep. 1
Adjoining Walls and Penetrationsp. 1
Deck Types And Materialsp. 1
Wood Decksp. 2
Wood Deck Cautionsp. 1
Installing Plywood Sheathingp. 1
Installing Tongue-and-Groove Board Sheathingp. 1
Gypsum Board Decksp. 1
Poured Or Sprayed Gypsum Concretep. 1
Concrete Decksp. 1
Lightweight Concretep. 3
Structural Concretep. 3
Metal Roof Decksp. 4
Roof Deck Usep. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
6Barriers for Roofing Systemsp. 43
Introductionp. 2
Vapor-Retarding Barriersp. 1
When to Use a Vapor Retarderp. 2
How to Use Vapor Retardersp. 1
High-Tech Vapor Barriers: Hygro Diode Membranesp. 2
Computer Analysis & Vapor Barrier Use Parametersp. 2
Understanding Air Barriersp. 1
Using Air Barriers to Resist Roof Blow-Offs & Ballooningp. 1
Ballooning and Delaminationp. 1
Air/Vapor Barrier "Systems" -- Controlling Condensationp. 2
Technics Air And Vapor Barriersp. 17
Vapor Retarders and The Trouble with Ventsp. 1
When Venting Worksp. 1
Using Vapor Barriers in Cold Storage Structuresp. 1
Ultraviolet Radiation Barriersp. 1
UV Radiation, Oxygen, and Temperaturep. 1
Noise Barriersp. 2
Walkways And Decking As Wear Barriers And Protecting Layersp. 2
Barrier Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
7Thermal Insulationp. 100
Introductionp. 1
Roof-to-wall ratiosp. 1
Potential Problems With Insulation?p. 1
Definitions And Theory Of Thermal Inertiap. 4
Physical And Chemical Properties Of Thermal Insulationp. 1
Thermal Insulation Materialsp. 1
Physical Structure And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Environment And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Moisture And Thermal Conductivityp. 1
Chemistry Of Polyurethans And Isocyanatesp. 1
Historyp. 2
Composition Of Polyurethanep. 1
Testing And Evaluation Studies Of Thermal Insulationp. 9
Recent Studies On Thermal Insulation - An Overviewp. 10
Thermal Driftp. 1
Too Much Insulation?p. 1
Rigid Insulation Boardsp. 1
Cellular Glass Insulationp. 1
Fiberglass Roof Insulationp. 1
Perlite/Vermiculite Boardp. 1
Phenolic Foam - phenol-formaldehyde (pf) resinp. 1
Polystyrene Bead Board, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)p. 1
Polystyrene Extruded Foam Boardp. 1
Urethane/Isocyanurate Foamsp. 1
Wood Fiberboardp. 3
Composite Thermal Insulationp. 2
Facingsp. 2
Composite Roofing Systemsp. 1
Thermal Insulation In Home Constructionp. 1
Loose Insulationp. 1
Cellulosic Fiberp. 1
Glass Fiberp. 2
Mineral Fiberp. 1
Coveragep. 1
Thermal Characteristicsp. 1
Moisture Absorptionp. 1
Applicationp. 2
Unfloored atticsp. 1
Floored atticsp. 1
Attic walls and slopesp. 1
Spray-On Insulationp. 1
Cellulosic Sprayp. 1
Mineral Wool Sprayp. 1
Cementitious Sprayp. 1
Application of Spray-On Insulationp. 2
Spray-On Insulation Adhesivesp. 1
Batt And Blanket Insulationp. 2
Thermal Insulation by Designp. 1
Urea-Formaldehyde Insulationp. 1
Epoxy Foamsp. 1
Tapered Insulationsp. 6
Rooftop Pipes Require Insulation Toop. 5
References And Further Readingp. 1
Calculating Insulation Valuesp. 6
Polyurethane Publicationsp. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Uffip. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Phenolic, Cellularp. 1
Insulation; Glass Fiberp. 1
Insulation; Rigid Boardp. 6
Insulation; Rigid; Expanded Polystyrenep. 1
Insulation; Rigid; Extruded Polystyrenep. 1
Insulation; Loose Or Sprayedp. 3
Insulation Testing And Standardsp. 2
Moisture & Insulationp. 2
Insulation; General Papers Onp. 3
8Thatched Roofingp. 28
Introductionp. 1
Brief History Of Thatchingp. 1
Materialsp. 1
Characteristics Of Thatchp. 2
Applicationp. 1
Thatching Toolsp. 1
Fixing Hardwarep. 1
General Specificationsp. 2
Design Considerationsp. 1
Specificationsp. 1
Details at Eavesp. 1
Gabled Endsp. 1
Ridgesp. 1
Ridge Capp. 1
Integral Roof Surface Decorationp. 1
Hipsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Flashingp. 1
Sedge Apronsp. 1
Vent Stacksp. 1
Attic Ventingp. 1
Chimneysp. 1
Architectural Detailsp. 1
Deck Construction And Underlayment Detailsp. 1
Thatch Treated Class-C Roofing Systemp. 1
Sheathingp. 1
Underlaymentp. 1
Sub-battensp. 1
Horizontal Battensp. 1
Arris Boardp. 1
Thatch Treated Class-A Roofing Systemp. 1
Supply And Installation Responsibilitiesp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Thatchingp. 1
Chimney Stacksp. 1
Hipsp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Vergesp. 1
Ridgesp. 1
Fire Hazardp. 1
Preventive Measuresp. 1
Reduction of Combustibilityp. 1
Fire Fighting Facilitiesp. 1
Generallyp. 1
Rainwater Disposalp. 1
Durabilityp. 1
Maintenancep. 1
Compliancep. 1
Fire Testp. 1
Wind Testp. 1
Thermal Insulation Testp. 1
Pricing Guidelinesp. 6
References And Further Readingp. 1
9Slate Roofingp. 15
Introductionp. 1
Slating is a Skillful Tradep. 1
Chemistry, Grades, Standards And Testingp. 1
Slate Gradesp. 1
Standardsp. 1
Testingp. 2
Slate Colors And Geographical Sourcesp. 1
Slate Sizes And Weightsp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Fasteningp. 1
Felts (Underlayments)p. 1
Toolsp. 1
Slate Cutterp. 1
Slate Hammerp. 1
Slate Ripperp. 5
References And Further Readingp. 1
10Wood Shingles and Shake Roofingp. 40
Introductionp. 1
The Red Cedar Shingle & Handsplit Shake Bureaup. 1
Red Cedarp. 1
Certigrade® Red Cedar Shinglesp. 1
Certi-Split® Red Cedar Shakesp. 1
Fire Rated Red Cedar Shingles and Shakesp. 1
If It Works, Don'T Fix It.p. 1
General Design Detailsp. 1
Sheathingp. 1
Shinglesp. 1
Shakesp. 1
General Application Detailsp. 1
Shingle Applicationp. 1
Shake Applicationp. 1
Mansard Roof Detailsp. 2
Low Slope Roof Detailsp. 1
Hip And Ridge Detailsp. 1
Roof Juncture Detailsp. 1
Convex Juncturep. 1
Concave Juncturep. 1
Apex Juncturep. 1
Swept or Bell Eavep. 1
Roof Valley Flashing Detailsp. 1
Valleys-Shinglesp. 1
Valleys-Shakesp. 1
Roof Projection Flashing Detailsp. 1
Roof Fastener Guidelinesp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Staplesp. 1
Ventilation Detailsp. 1
Vapor Barrier Guidelinesp. 1
Specialty Roof Deck Detailsp. 1
Wood Deckp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Rigid Insulationp. 1
Metal Deckp. 1
Cold Weather Roof System Detailsp. 2
Specification Guidelinesp. 1
General Specification Datap. 1
Roof Application-Sheathing Boardsp. 1
Roofing Felt Interlay (for shakes only)p. 1
Roofing General Application Datap. 1
Roofing, Shingles/Shakes, Miscellaneous Flashingsp. 1
Hips and Ridgesp. 1
Nails and Nailing Shingles/Shakesp. 1
Wood Fiber Shinglesp. 1
Steam Bent Wood Shingles - "Thatch"p. 1
Shingle And Shake Problemsp. 1
Importing Increases Costp. 1
FIRE RETARDANT TREATMENTS (FRTs)p. 1
Pre-Treatmentp. 1
To Pre-Treat or Not to Pre-Treat?p. 1
Testingp. 1
Intermittent Flame Testp. 1
Spread Of Flame Testp. 1
Burning Brand Testp. 1
Flying Brand Testp. 1
Rain Testp. 1
Weathering Testp. 1
Fire Safety Brochuresp. 1
Building Codesp. 1
Canadian Standards On Shakes And Shinglesp. 1
Spray-On Preservativesp. 1
Water-borne Preservativesp. 1
Oil-Borne Preservativesp. 1
Cleaning Wood and Wood Roofsp. 1
General Application Recommendationsp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Clean Upp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 3
11Ceramic and Concrete Tilesp. 36
Introductionp. 1
Life Expectancyp. 1
What makes one tile better than another?p. 1
Overweight?p. 1
Tile Profilep. 1
Standard Tilep. 1
Glazed Tilep. 1
Glazed Tile Offers Some Protectionp. 1
Application of Glazed Tilesp. 1
Glazed Tile Costs and Qualityp. 1
Glaze Formulation - Glazes are Really Glassp. 1
Glazed Tile Selectionp. 1
Glazed Tiles are an Investmentp. 1
Concrete Tilesp. 1
Interlocking Tilesp. 1
Mortar-Set Systems And Nail-On Systemsp. 1
Material Considerationsp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Felts (Underlayments)p. 1
Time For An Inspection?p. 1
Glaze failurep. 1
Manufacturer's Field Testingp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Direct Nailingp. 1
Supplementary Details and Accessory Tilesp. 1
Tile in Snow Areasp. 1
Tiles in High Wind and Hurricane Areasp. 1
Reroofing With Tilesp. 1
Specialty Productsp. 1
New Technique Ventilates Tile Roofs at the Ridgep. 1
Clay Ridge Ventsp. 1
Recent Studies On The Testing Of Tiles - An Overviewp. 1
Codes And Standardsp. 10
Ceramic, Clay and Concrete Tile Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
12Metal Tilesp. 11
Introductionp. 1
Granulated Metal Tilesp. 2
Aluminum Tilesp. 1
Copper Shinglesp. 2
Metal Tile Finishesp. 1
Application of Metal Tiles and Panelsp. 5
Metal Tile and Tile Panel Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
13Roofing Panelsp. 14
Introductionp. 1
Polycarbonate Panelsp. 1
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Panelsp. 1
Asphalt Panelsp. 1
Metal Panelsp. 4
Roofing Panels For Residential Structuresp. 1
Recent Studies On Roofing Panels - An Overviewp. 2
NRCA Adds Roofing Panels To The Materials Guidep. 4
Roofing Panel Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
14Roofing Bitumen Asphalt and Coal Tar Pitchp. 42
Introductionp. 2
Petroleum Asphaltsp. 1
Petroleum Asphalt Manufacturep. 1
Straight Run Asphaltsp. 1
Thermal Asphaltsp. 1
Propane De-Asphaltingp. 1
Native Asphaltsp. 1
Rock Asphaltsp. 1
Lake Asphaltsp. 1
The Alberta Oil Sand Depositsp. 1
Extraction of Bitumen from Tar Sandp. 2
Upgrading Tar Sand Bitumenp. 1
Tars And Derivativesp. 1
Incompatibility of Asphalt and Coal Tar Pitch (CTP)p. 1
The Composition Of Asphaltp. 3
Composition Depends Upon Crude Sourcep. 1
Method of Manufacture Also Must be Consideredp. 1
Asphalt Manufacturingp. 1
Vacuum Reductionp. 1
Air Blown Asphaltp. 1
The Batch Processp. 1
The Continuous Processp. 2
Catalytic Asphaltp. 1
Modified Asphaltsp. 1
Road Cutbacks and Oilsp. 1
Emulsionsp. 1
Composition of Asphalt Emulsionsp. 1
Classificationp. 1
Emulsion Ingredientsp. 1
Asphaltp. 1
Waterp. 1
Emulsifying Agentsp. 1
Breakingp. 1
Curingp. 1
Factors Affecting Setting Ratep. 1
Mineral Fillersp. 1
Equiviscous Temperature (Evt)p. 1
Revisions Proposedp. 2
Testing Of Asphaltsp. 3
Fingerprint Gas Chromatographyp. 1
Weatheringp. 1
Weathering Effects of Sunlight on Asphaltp. 2
Effects of Sulfur on Weatheringp. 1
Antioxidants and Asphalt Durabilityp. 3
Fungus Attacks On Asphaltp. 1
Microbial Destruction Of Bitumenp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
15Felts, Fabrics and Reinforcementsp. 36
Introductionp. 1
Standards For Roofing And Waterproofing Materials.p. 1
Fiber/Matrix Theoryp. 1
Woven Fabricsp. 1
Non-Woven Feltsp. 1
Organic Feltsp. 1
Asbestos Feltsp. 1
Glass Fiber Feltsp. 1
Glass Compositionp. 1
Glass Fiber Mat-Making Methodsp. 2
Polyester And Other Synthetic Feltsp. 3
Durabilityp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Single Ply Roofing Membrane Reinforcementsp. 3
Polyester Fibersp. 1
The Effect Of Moisture On Roofing Feltsp. 1
Geotextiles And Geosyntheticsp. 1
Felt And Fabric Identificationp. 1
Recent Studies On Felts And Fabrics - An Overviewp. 9
Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Roofing Felts, Fabrics And Reinforcementsp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
16Asphalt Shinglesp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Why Asphalt Shingles?p. 2
Step-By-Step Installationp. 1
Deck Preparationp. 1
Proper Ventilationp. 1
Fastenersp. 1
Applying The Shinglesp. 1
Starter Coursep. 1
First Coursep. 1
Second and Remaining Coursesp. 1
Valleysp. 1
Detailp. 1
Fastener Guidelinesp. 1
Finish Coursep. 1
Inspection and Replacement of Damaged Shinglesp. 1
More Informationp. 1
Do-It-Yourself Roofingp. 1
Mis-Application of Asphalt Shingles Over Insulationp. 1
Fiberglass Reinforced Asphalt Shingle Manufacturep. 1
Organic Shingles Vs Fiberglass Shinglesp. 2
The Designer Shingles - Architectural, Laminatedp. 1
Weight Vs Strengthp. 1
"Designer" Problems?p. 1
Modified Bitumen Fiberglass Mat Shinglesp. 1
Metric Shinglesp. 1
The Bridging Application Methodp. 1
The Nesting Application Methodp. 1
Other Shingle Features And Accessoriesp. 3
Annual Roof Costp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Repair And Maintenancep. 1
Asphalt Shingle Recyclingp. 1
Pneumatic Toolsp. 2
The Right Toolsp. 4
Audio/Visual Trainingp. 1
Standards For Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Suppliersp. 1
Asphalt Shingle Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 5
17Roll Roofingp. 33
Introductionp. 1
Roll Roofing Manufacturing And Specificationsp. 1
Saturants and Coatingp. 1
Organic Felt: Asphaltp. 1
Organic Felt: Tar Saturatedp. 1
Asbestos Roofing Felts: Asphalt and Coal-Tar Saturatedp. 1
Glass-Fiber Feltp. 1
Polyester Feltsp. 1
Mineral Stabilizersp. 1
Fine Mineralsp. 1
Smooth-Surface Roll Roofing: Organic and Inorganicp. 1
Mineral-Surfaced Roll Roofingp. 1
Mineral-Surfaced Selvage-Edge Roofingp. 1
Roll Roofing Installationp. 1
Concealed Nail Methodp. 2
Exposed Nail Methodp. 2
Hips and Ridgesp. 1
Nailsp. 1
Double-Coverage Roll Roofingp. 1
Cautionp. 1
Other Materialsp. 1
Roof Pitchp. 1
Asphalt Cementp. 1
First Coursep. 1
Second Coursep. 1
Succeeding Coursesp. 1
Special Situationsp. 2
Summaryp. 1
Roll Roof Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 14
18Built-Up Roofing Systems (BUR)p. 57
Introductionp. 1
Bur Componentsp. 1
Decksp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Thermal Insulationsp. 1
Membranesp. 1
Flashingp. 1
Bitumen: The Critical Elementp. 1
Asphalt Qualityp. 1
Asphalt Contains Fluxp. 1
Coal-Tar Pitchp. 1
Selecting An Asphalt Or Coal-Tar Pitch For Burp. 1
Asphalt Selection and Heating Requirements (EVT)p. 1
Equiviscous Temperaturep. 1
Coal-Tar Pitch and Heating Requirementsp. 1
Felts And Vapor Retardersp. 2
Surfacing Materialsp. 1
Hot Applied Burp. 1
Laying Felts: The Shingle Methodp. 1
Application of Bitumenp. 1
Spot and Strip Moppingp. 1
Machine Spreadersp. 1
Tankers and Kettlesp. 1
Application Temperaturesp. 1
Heating Recommendationsp. 1
Bitumen Quantitiesp. 1
Cut-Offsp. 1
Top Pourp. 1
Gravelp. 1
The Hazards of Unfinished Finishingp. 1
Work, Weather and BURp. 2
A Word On Workmanshipp. 1
Cold Applied Bur Emulsions And Coatingsp. 1
Application of Cold Applied BURp. 1
Application Errorsp. 1
Cold-Applied Performancep. 1
Cold-Applied Polyesterp. 2
Design And Performancep. 1
Standards And Codesp. 1
Base Sheet And Deck Typesp. 1
Timber and Similar Decksp. 1
Screed Decksp. 1
Unscreed Decksp. 1
New Approaches To Flat Roof Designp. 2
Thermal Design Of The Flat Roofp. 1
The Cold Roofp. 1
Cold Roof Ventilationp. 1
The Warm Roofp. 1
Advantages of the Warm Roofp. 1
The Inverted Roofp. 1
The Causes Of Premature Bur Failuresp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Improper Drainagep. 1
Effects of Moisture and the Freeze-Thaw Cyclep. 2
Blistersp. 1
Blister Mechanicsp. 1
Testing for Moisturep. 1
Why Blisters Growp. 1
Other Factors Promoting Blister Growthsp. 1
Urethane Boards and Blisteringp. 1
Splittingp. 1
Causes of Splittingp. 1
Thermal Contractionp. 1
Thermal Shock Factor (TSF)p. 1
Insulation Movementp. 1
Ideal Insulationp. 1
Drying Shrinkagep. 1
Deck Deflectionp. 1
Stress Concentrationsp. 1
How to Improve Membrane-Splitting Resistancep. 1
Ridgingp. 1
How to Prevent Ridgingp. 1
Membrane Slippagep. 1
Preventing Slippagep. 1
Delaminationp. 2
Alligatoringp. 1
Surface Erosionp. 1
Grease and BURp. 1
Effects of Aging and Oxidationp. 1
Effects of Humidity and Temperaturep. 1
The New Age: Recycling Burp. 1
Major Built-Up Roofing Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 9
19Protected Membrane Roofing (PMR)p. 20
Introductionp. 3
Advantages Of The Pmr Roofing Systemp. 3
Composite Insulation Innovations In Pmr Systemsp. 1
Roof Terrace Applications For Pmr Systemsp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Membrane Applicationp. 2
Reroofing Detail Design With Pmr And Its Specificationp. 1
Reroofing Surface Preparationp. 1
Insulation and Filter Clothp. 1
Protected Roofing Membrane Ballast And Paversp. 3
Recent Studies On Protected Membrane Systems - An Overviewp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 4
20Hot-Applied Rubberized Asphaltp. 15
Introductionp. 2
Chemistryp. 1
Testingp. 1
Water Absorptionp. 1
Low Temperature Flexibilityp. 1
Ductilityp. 1
Toughness-Tenacityp. 1
Crack-Bridgingp. 1
Plasticity (Plastic Flow)p. 1
Resultsp. 2
Specificationsp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Reroofingp. 1
Moisture, Preparation, and Dew Pointp. 1
New Roofingp. 4
Hot Applied Rubberized Asphalt Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
21Polyurethane Foam PUF Roofing Systemsp. 35
Introductionp. 1
Author'S Note - Terminologyp. 1
Composition And Chemistryp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Application Criteriap. 2
Application to Concrete Roof Decksp. 1
Application to Wood Roof Decksp. 1
Application to Steel Roofsp. 1
Application to Fluted Steel Roof Decksp. 1
Advantages And Disadvantagesp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Proper Application Proceduresp. 3
Spray PUF Equipment Operation And Material Problemsp. 3
Coverings On Sprayed-In-Place Polyurethane Foamp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Available Coatingsp. 2
Coating Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Granule Applicationp. 1
Inspection And Maintenancep. 1
How To Troubleshoot Spray-Polyerethane Foam Equipmentp. 3
Single Ply Over PUF?p. 1
Manufacturers, Distributors And Contractorsp. 4
Four Important Publications on Polyurethane Foam Roofing Systemsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 5
22Liquid Membranes and Waterproofing Coatingsp. 38
Introductionp. 1
Cold-Applied Roofing Has Been Ignoredp. 2
Cold Applied Roofing Membranesp. 1
Asphaltic Cut-Backsp. 1
Asphaltic Emulsionsp. 3
Solvent-Based Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Solvent-based materials and VOC Coating Regulationsp. 2
Chlorinated Solventsp. 1
Water/Emulsion-Based Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Emulsion Chemistryp. 1
100-Percent Solids Membranes And Coatingsp. 1
Bituminous Coating Materialsp. 1
Acrylic Mastic Coatingsp. 2
Vinylidene Chloride (VDC) Copolymer Coatingsp. 2
Surface Preparationp. 1
Application Of Cold-Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatingsp. 4
Cold Applied Coatings As A Surfacing Alternative For Hot Burp. 1
Acrylic Coatings Used For Maintenance On Aged Burp. 2
Rcma Manualp. 1
Recent Studies On Cold Applied Liquid Membranes And Coatings For Waterproofing - An Overviewp. 8
Cold Applied Liquid Membrane and Coating Manufacturersp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Membranesp. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Coatingsp. 3
23Foundation Wall and Underground Waterproofingp. 46
Introductionp. 1
Dampproofing vs Waterproofingp. 1
Effects of water movementp. 1
Materials For Waterproofingp. 6
Cold-Applied Liquid Waterproofing Membranesp. 2
Waterproofing And The Design Professionalp. 2
Using The Below-Grade Waterproofing Materials Tablep. 1
Longevityp. 1
Crack Bridgingp. 1
Elastic Propertiesp. 1
Resealabilityp. 1
Leak-Localizing Capabilityp. 1
Resistance to Chemicalsp. 1
Puncture Resistancep. 1
Hydrostatic Pressure Resistancep. 1
Permeability and Breathabilityp. 1
Freeze/Thaw Resistancep. 1
Shrinkagep. 1
Emulsification in Waterp. 1
Temperature and Humidity Sensitivityp. 1
Cure Timep. 1
Application and Clean-Upp. 1
Quality Controlp. 1
Compatibilityp. 1
Safetyp. 1
Seams and Grade-Line Terminationp. 1
Production Ratesp. 1
Substrate Preparationp. 1
Adaptabilityp. 1
Accessoriesp. 1
Ease of Job-Site Tie-Insp. 1
Vertical and Horizontal Applicationsp. 1
Protectionp. 1
Schedulingp. 1
Warranty Programp. 2
Available Applicatorsp. 1
Cost Effectivenessp. 1
Waterproofing Systems For Earth Sheltered Structuresp. 1
Site Planningp. 1
Landscapingp. 1
Backfilling and Drainagep. 1
Floors and Roofsp. 1
Waterproofing Membranep. 1
Recent Studies On Non-Roofing Waterproofing-An Overviewp. 5
Foundation Wall & Underground Waterproofing Manufacturersp. 1
Waterproofing Material Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 1
Waterproofing Of Earth Shelters, Pools, Reservoirsp. 1
Foreign Waterproofing Articlesp. 2
Waterproofing/Dampproofing Articles, Papers, Researchp. 2
Concrete Waterproofingp. 1
24Single-Ply Roofing Membranesp. 40
Introductionp. 1
Workmanshipp. 1
Why Single-Ply: An Historical Perspectivep. 1
The Evolution of Building Designp. 1
The European Experiencep. 1
Technical and Economical Factorsp. 1
Energy Factorsp. 1
Labor: Is BUR a Dirty Word?p. 1
Bur Battles Backp. 1
Polymer Chemistry And Single-Plyp. 1
Thermosetting vs. Thermoplasticp. 1
Single Ply Classificationsp. 1
Modified Bitumensp. 1
Prefabricated and Reinforcedp. 1
Hot Applied Rubberized Asphalts (RA)p. 1
Cold Applied Liquid Membrane (CLM)p. 1
Thermosets (Elastomers)p. 1
Thermoplasticsp. 2
Liquid Applied Systemsp. 1
Single Ply And System Designp. 2
The Ballasted Systemp. 1
The Adhered Systemp. 1
The Mechanically Attached Systemp. 1
A Basis For Selecting Roofing Membranesp. 1
Criteria For Selecting A Single-Ply For Your Roof Systemp. 1
Structural Considerationsp. 1
Deck Compositionp. 1
Load Bearing Capacityp. 1
Deck Penetrationsp. 1
Wind Uplift and Climatic Variablesp. 1
Chemical Environmentp. 1
Roof Accessp. 1
Aestheticp. 1
Building Codes and Costsp. 1
Pinpointing Problems With Single-Plyp. 1
Project Pinpoint was initiated by the NRCA in 1974.p. 1
Lap Defectsp. 1
Shrinkagep. 1
Tear and Puncturesp. 1
Delaminationp. 1
Insulationp. 1
Other Problems with Single-Plyp. 1
Distribution of Problemsp. 1
Problems With Moisture And Single-Pliesp. 2
Single-Ply Alerts For Further Considerationp. 1
Designp. 1
Fieldp. 2
Conclusionp. 1
Manufacturers of Single-ply, BUR or Bothp. 4
References And Further Readingp. 11
25Bitumen Modificationp. 26
Introductionp. 1
Viscosity/Rheologyp. 5
Molecular Weightp. 1
Compoundingp. 1
Penetrationp. 1
Handlingp. 1
Bitumen Compositionp. 1
Broad Characterization Of Bitumen Constituentsp. 1
Phase Equilibrium and Phase Separationp. 3
Polymeric Modifiersp. 1
Fillersp. 2
Bitumen/Polymer Blendingp. 3
Aging of Modified Bitumensp. 4
Conclusionp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 3
26Modified Bitumenp. 52
Introductionp. 1
It all started in Italyp. 1
Atactic Polypropylene (APP)p. 1
Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS)p. 2
UV Radiationp. 1
Fundamentalsp. 1
Current modified bitumensp. 1
Desirable featuresp. 1
Current specificationsp. 1
Fire ratingsp. 1
Wind ratingsp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Structure of polymer modified bitumensp. 1
Mixing and blending of modified bitumenp. 1
Sheet manufacturep. 1
Reinforcementsp. 1
Polyesterp. 1
Fiberglassp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
Disadvantagesp. 1
Modified's Limitationsp. 1
Application Precautionsp. 2
Imperative Selection Guidelinesp. 1
Technical Distinctivesp. 1
Product Comparisonsp. 1
Making the Right Choicep. 1
Better Than Bur?p. 1
Building Movementp. 1
Flashingsp. 1
Uv Resistancep. 1
Performancep. 1
Testingp. 1
Recent Developmentsp. 1
Specification/Applicationp. 1
Insulationp. 1
The Membranep. 1
Recovering Applicationsp. 1
Torch-Applied Safetyp. 5
Mb Equipment Innovationsp. 1
Quality Control (Application)p. 4
Torching Versus Hot-Mopping (Application)p. 1
Modified Bitumen Educationp. 1
Modified Bitumen Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 13
27Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)p. 32
Introduction And Historyp. 1
Compositionp. 1
Energy Savingsp. 2
Applicationp. 4
Fire Resistancep. 1
Non-Penetrating Fastening Systemsp. 2
Polyester Backing Optionp. 2
Use Of Existing Equipmentp. 1
Laboratory Performance Testsp. 5
Field Quality Control And Lab Testingp. 3
Talc-Free EPDM Spliced with Butyl Tapesp. 3
Other Epdm Productsp. 1
Pricep. 1
EPDM Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 5
28Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomersp. 12
Introductionp. 1
Neoprenep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Compositionp. 1
The Two Types of Neoprenep. 1
Description of General Purpose Neoprenesp. 1
Description of Adhesive Type Neoprenesp. 1
Processing Neoprenesp. 1
Functions, Applications, Specifications and Installation of Neoprenep. 2
Using Neoprenes for Recovering Roofsp. 1
Neoprene Weight Limitationsp. 1
Effect of Chemical Contaminationp. 1
Additional Insulationp. 1
NITRILE BUTADIENE POLYBLENDS (NBPs)p. 1
Compositionp. 2
NBP Manufacturersp. 2
Vulcanized (Cured) Elastomers Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
29Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Elastomersp. 12
Introductionp. 1
A Generic Look At Uncured Polymersp. 1
"There'S Nothing Magic About Curing"p. 1
Elastomer Groupsp. 1
Cspep. 1
Cspe Advantagesp. 1
Cspe Disadvantagesp. 1
Cpep. 1
Hypalon/CPE Composite Membranep. 1
Nbpp. 1
Non-Vulcanized Thermoplastic Elastomer Performance Reviewp. 1
Chlorinated Polyethylene (Cpe)p. 1
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (Cspe)p. 1
Polyisobutylene (Pib)p. 1
NITRILE ALLOY with BUTADIENE ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMERS (NBP)p. 1
Insulation Informationp. 1
Repairing Cured Materialp. 1
Application Detailsp. 2
Non-Vulcanized (Uncured) Elastomers Mfrs & Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 1
30Thermoplastic Single-Ply Membranesp. 6
Introductionp. 1
Eipp. 1
Hyloadp. 2
Thermoplastic Single-Ply Membranes Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
31Poly(vinyl) Chloride (PVC)p. 53
Introductionp. 1
Historyp. 1
Compositionp. 1
PVC Compoundingp. 3
The Importance of Plasticizersp. 2
Dimensional Stabilityp. 2
Thermal Stabilityp. 1
Chemical Resistance And Compatibilityp. 1
Applicationp. 1
The Do's of PVCp. 1
The Don'ts of PVCp. 1
Lap Jointsp. 2
Flashingsp. 2
Nightly Tie-Offsp. 1
Partial Retrofit Projectsp. 3
Standards And Specificationsp. 3
New Guidelinesp. 2
Testingp. 1
Temperature-Induced Loadp. 1
Heat Agingp. 1
Accelerated Weatheringp. 1
Puncture Damagep. 1
Shattering of PVCp. 1
Symptoms and Conditionsp. 1
Maintenance and Repairsp. 2
Other Defectsp. 2
Tensile Testsp. 2
Recent Studies On Pvc Roofing Membranes - An Overviewp. 5
Past and Present PVC Technology Contributorsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 11
32Polyisobutylene (PIB)p. 13
Introductionp. 1
Advantagesp. 1
What are the advantages of the PIB system?p. 1
Applicationp. 1
Chemistryp. 1
The System Itselfp. 1
Limitationsp. 2
Alternative Application Problemsp. 1
Repair Methodsp. 1
Manufacturep. 1
Partially Adheredp. 1
Contractor's Commentsp. 1
New Constructionp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 1
33Adhesion and Adhesivesp. 52
Introductionp. 1
Terms Used In Adhesion Science And Technologyp. 2
The Theory Of Adhesionp. 1
Adhesion Bondsp. 2
Surface energy of solidsp. 1
Interdiffusion theoryp. 1
Wetting and settingp. 2
Wood As An Adherendp. 1
Basic structure of woodp. 1
Bulk properties of woodp. 3
Plastics As Adherendsp. 1
Bulk properties of plasticsp. 3
Surfaces of plastics and their preparation for bondingp. 1
Metals As Adherendsp. 3
Metal surfaces and their preparation for bondingp. 1
Bonding elastomers to metal substratesp. 1
Selecting An Adhesivep. 1
Natural And Synthetic Rubber Adhesivesp. 2
Hot Melt Adhesivesp. 1
Thermoplastic rubbersp. 1
Adhesive Emulsionsp. 1
Acrylic Adhesivesp. 1
Phenolic Resin Adhesivesp. 1
Urea-formaldehydep. 1
Polyurethane And Isocyanate Based Adhesivesp. 1
Epoxy Resinsp. 1
Asphalt As An Adhesivep. 1
Testingp. 1
Tests on adhesivesp. 1
Tests on bonded joints and assembliesp. 2
Testing Adhesives Prior To Bondingp. 3
Tests For Screening New Adhesive Productsp. 2
Non-Destructive Testingp. 2
Adhesion And Cohesion Of Rubberized Asphaltsp. 1
Adhesion Of Coatingsp. 2
Other Useful Adhesive Informationp. 3
Adhesive Storagep. 1
Adhesive Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 6
34Sealants, Caulks and Joint Movementp. 39
Introductionp. 1
Building Joints and Their Theoretical Functionp. 1
Building Joint Typesp. 1
Construction Jointsp. 1
Movement and Butt Jointsp. 1
Non-Working and Static Jointsp. 1
Contraction Jointsp. 1
Expansion and Isolation Jointsp. 1
Design Considerationsp. 1
Joint Dimension - Minimum Width and Depthp. 1
Difficult Substratesp. 1
Surface Preparationp. 1
Joint Adjustmentp. 1
Joint Contaminantsp. 1
Solventsp. 1
Plastic Substratesp. 1
Miscellaneous Substratesp. 1
Primingp. 1
Primer, solvent and sealant safety and handlingp. 1
Accessory Materialsp. 1
Filler Boardsp. 1
Foam Filler - Back-up Rodp. 1
Bond-Breakersp. 1
Back-up Materialsp. 1
Caulking Compoundsp. 1
Oil-Based Caulksp. 1
Butyl Caulksp. 1
Acrylic Latex Caulksp. 1
Solvent-Release Acrylic Caulksp. 1
Elastomeric Sealantsp. 3
Sealant Classificationp. 1
Curing Of Sealantsp. 1
Application Tips In Adverse Environmentsp. 1
Incompatibilityp. 1
Causes of Failurep. 2
Tooling And Finishingp. 1
Selecting Sealants, Sealant Manufacturers, And Applicatorsp. 1
Testing And Evaluation Of Sealantsp. 13
Adhesive, Caulking, and Sealant Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 2
References And Further Readingp. 3
35Lap Joint Techniques for Single-Ply Membranesp. 41
Introductionp. 1
Lap Joint Historyp. 2
Types Of Lap Jointsp. 1
Thermoplastic Materialsp. 1
Thermoset Materialsp. 1
Modified Bitumensp. 1
Plastic film parting agentsp. 1
Types Of Roofing Systemsp. 1
One-Part Butyl Adhesive Lap Joints For Epdmp. 1
Application method for butyl adhesivep. 5
What can go wrong and whyp. 2
Butyl Tapes For Epdmp. 2
Neoprene For Epdm Lap Jointsp. 1
HEAT-WELDABLE EPDMsp. 1
Hot Air Weldingp. 2
Other Methods Of Achieving A Lap Jointp. 3
Lap Joint Quality Assurancep. 1
Surface preparationp. 1
Checking seam integrityp. 4
Lap Joint Testingp. 1
Joint Integrityp. 1
One-part butyl-based and neoprene-based adhesive lap jointsp. 3
Single-Ply Field Seam Evaluationp. 5
Organizationsp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 4
36Fabric Roofsp. 34
Introductionp. 2
Fabric Structure Science: How And Why It Worksp. 1
History Of Fabric Roofsp. 1
Developed For Decadesp. 1
Portable Structuresp. 1
Design Characteristicsp. 1
High Tensile And Tear Strengthsp. 1
Excellent Coating Adhesionp. 1
Non-Wickingp. 1
Dimensional Stabilityp. 1
Flame Resistancep. 1
Resistance To Fungus And Mildew Growthp. 1
Weldabilityp. 1
Chemical Resistancep. 1
Extended Life Spanp. 2
Energy Factorsp. 1
The Dead Air Factorp. 2
Energy Balancep. 1
Future Fabric Schemesp. 4
Testingp. 2
Testing Synopsisp. 1
Damaged Material Assessmentp. 1
Applicationp. 1
Tensionp. 4
Disadvantagesp. 1
Performancep. 1
Compliancep. 1
Future Trendsp. 1
Summaryp. 3
Fabric Roof Major Manufacturers and Suppliersp. 1
References And Further Readingp. 2
37Standing Seam Metallic Roofing Systemsp. 50
Introductionp. 1
Groups And Types Of Sheet Metal Roofsp. 3
Materials And Designp. 2
Slope Considerationsp. 1
Finishes On Metalsp. 1
Anodizingp. 1
Hardcoat Processp. 1
Two-Step Hardcoat Processp. 1
Porcelainsp. 1
Powdered Metal Coatingsp. 1
Architectural Coatingsp. 1
Siliconized Acrylic and Polyester Paintsp. 1
Fluoropolymersp. 1
Acrylic Polyurethanesp. 2
Metal Building Insulationp. 2
Condensation And Ventilationp. 1
Thermal Expansion And Contractionp. 1
Expansion Jointsp. 1
Galvanic Actionp. 1
Erosionp. 1
Stainingp. 1
Installationp. 1
Preparation of the Substratep. 1
Panformersp. 1
Fastening Techniques For Metal Roofing Systemsp. 1
Concrete Decksp. 1
Steel Decksp. 1
Vapor Retardersp. 1
Copper Roofing Installationp. 1
Reroofing With Metalp. 1
Reroofing over BURp. 2
Reroofing over Metalp. 1
Metal Roof Maintenancep. 1
Paintsp. 1
Coatingsp. 1
Sealantsp. 1
Maintenance Systemsp. 1
Quality Control, Performance, Standards & Metal Roofing Publicationsp. 4
Recent Studies On Metal Roofing - An Overviewp. 2
Metal Roofing Educational Coursesp. 2
Zinc Roofingp. 1
Copper Roofingp. 1
Metal Roof Terminationsp. 1
Metal Roofing Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 3
References And Further Readingp. 7
38Fasteners and Fastening Techniquesp. 43
Forewordp. 1
Introductionp. 1
General Fastener Informationp. 1
Historyp. 1
Fastener Applicationp. 1
Inspect the deckp. 1
Check the insulationp. 1
Pull-Out Testsp. 1
Determine the fastening patternp. 1
Thermal Bridgingp. 3
Installationp. 1
Safetyp. 1
Screw-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 2
Performancep. 1
Analytical Fastener Designp. 2
Wood Decksp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Nail-Type Fastening And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Nailing Asphalt Shinglesp. 1
Staple-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Anchor-Type Fasteners And Fastening Systemsp. 1
Concrete decksp. 2
Tectum or Precast Lightweight Concretep. 1
Equipmentp. 1
Termination-Bars And Systemsp. 1
Non-Penetrating Fastenersp. 1
Fastening Clay Or Concrete Tilesp. 1
Historyp. 1
Fastening Roofing Tilesp. 2
Tile Tie Systemsp. 2
Tiles In High Wind Areasp. 1
New Tile Adhesivep. 1
Corrosion And Fastenersp. 1
Mechanical Fastener Testing And Researchp. 2
Fastener Standardsp. 1
Major U.S. Fastener Manufacturers And Suppliersp. 11
References And Further Readingp. 3
39Corrosion Problems and Preventive Measuresp. 57
Introductionp. 1
What Is Corrosion?p. 1
The Principle Of Galvanic Corrosionp. 2
Types Of Corrosionp. 1
General Corrosionp. 1
General Corrosion: growthp. 1
Galvanic Corrosionp. 2
Corrosion by Aeration Cellsp. 6
Biochemical Corrosionp. 1
Chemical Corrosionp. 3
Localized Corrosion (pitting)p. 1
Stress Corrosion Crackingp. 2
Corrosion Preventionp. 1
Coatingsp. 3
Corrosion Ratep. 2
The Speed of Corrosion of Carbon Steelp. 3
Corrosion of Zinc and Galvanized Steelp. 2
Stainless Steels and Duplex Systemsp. 1
Stainless Steelp. 1
Austenitic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Ferritic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Martensitic Stainless Steelsp. 1
Corrosion of Stainless Steelsp. 1
Fastener/Steel Sheet Interactionp. 3
Corrosion In Timberp. 1
Corrosion In Steel Reinforcing Of Concretep. 2
Cathodic Protection Systemsp. 2
Design Considerations for Cathodic Protection Systemsp. 1
Cathodic Protection System Typesp. 1
Testing For Corrosion Resistancep. 1
ASTM Committee G-1p. 1
Guideline Methodsp. 1
General Test Methodsp. 2
Specific Test Methodsp. 1
Reference Methodsp. 1
Corrosivity Measurement Standardsp. 1
Corrosion Forums and Control for Infrastructurep. 1
Corrosion Testing Related to Roofingp. 1
Kesternich Test (DIN-50018)p. 1
Salt Spray Testp. 1
Recent Studies On Corrosion - An Overviewp. 7
References And Further Readingp. 3
40Special, Unique and Exotic Roofsp. 49
Introductionp. 1
Roofing And Aestheticsp. 1
Advanced Roofing Technologyp. 1
Photovoltaic Roofing Systemsp. 1
Air Curtain Roofsp. 1
Definitionp. 1
The Structurep. 8
References And Further Readingp. 38